Authorization

Create CockroachDB users

Use the CREATE USER and DROP USER statements to create and remove users, the ALTER USER statement to add or change a user's password and role options, the GRANT and REVOKE statements to manage the user’s privileges, and the SHOW USERS statement to list users.

A new user must be granted the required privileges for each database and table that the user needs to access.

Note:

By default, a new user belongs to the public role and has no privileges other than those assigned to the public role.

Create and manage roles

To create and manage your cluster's roles, use the following statements:

Statement Description
CREATE ROLE Create SQL roles.
DROP ROLE Remove one or more SQL roles.
GRANT Manage each role or user's SQL privileges for interacting with specific databases and tables, or add a role or user as a member to a role.
REVOKE Revoke privileges from users and/or roles, or revoke a role or user's membership to a role.
SHOW ROLES List the roles for all databases.
SHOW GRANTS List the privileges granted to users.

For example, suppose a cluster contains a role named cockroachlabs, and a user named max is a member of the cockroachlabs role:

root@localhost:26257/defaultdb> show roles;
    username    | options |    member_of
----------------+---------+------------------
  admin         |         | {}
  cockroachlabs |         | {}
  max           |         | {cockroachlabs}
  root          |         | {admin}
(4 rows)

If a user connects to the cluster as cockroachlabs and creates a table named albums, then any user that is also a member of the cockroachlabs role will have ALL privileges on that table:

cockroachlabs@localhost:26257/db> CREATE TABLE albums (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        title STRING,
        length DECIMAL,
        tracklist JSONB
);
max@localhost:26257/db> ALTER TABLE albums ADD COLUMN year INT;
ALTER TABLE


Time: 1.137s total (execution 1.137s / network 0.000s)

max@localhost:26257/db> SHOW CREATE TABLE albums;
  table_name |                     create_statement
-------------+------------------------------------------------------------
  albums     | CREATE TABLE public.albums (
             |     id UUID NOT NULL,
             |     title STRING NULL,
             |     length DECIMAL NULL,
             |     tracklist JSONB NULL,
             |     year INT8 NULL,
             |     CONSTRAINT "primary" PRIMARY KEY (id ASC),
             |     FAMILY "primary" (id, title, length, tracklist, year)
             | )
(1 row)

Example

The following example uses MovR, a fictional vehicle-sharing application, to demonstrate CockroachDB SQL statements. For more information about the MovR example application and dataset, see MovR: A Global Vehicle-sharing App.

Let's say we want to create the following access control setup for the movr database:

  • One database admin (named db_admin) who can perform all database operations for existing tables as well as for tables added in the future.
  • One app user (named app_user) who can add, read update, and delete vehicles from the vehicles table.
  • One user (named report_user) who can only read the vehicles table.
  1. Use the cockroach demo command to load the movr database and dataset into a CockroachDB cluster:

    icon/buttons/copy
    $ cockroach demo
    
  2. Create the database admin (named db_admin) who can perform all database operations for existing tables as well as for tables added in the future:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER db_admin;
    
  3. Grant all privileges on database movr to user db_admin:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT ALL ON DATABASE movr TO db_admin;
    
  4. Grant all privileges on all tables in database movr to user db_admin:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT ALL ON TABLE * TO db_admin;
    
  5. Verify that db_admin has all privileges:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW GRANTS FOR db_admin;
    
      database_name |    schema_name     |         table_name         | grantee  | privilege_type  
    +---------------+--------------------+----------------------------+----------+----------------+
      movr          | crdb_internal      | NULL                       | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | information_schema | NULL                       | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | pg_catalog         | NULL                       | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | NULL                       | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | promo_codes                | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | rides                      | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | user_promo_codes           | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | users                      | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | vehicle_location_histories | db_admin | ALL             
      movr          | public             | vehicles                   | db_admin | ALL             
    (10 rows)
    
  6. As the root user, create a SQL user named app_user with permissions to add, read, update, and delete vehicles in the vehicles table:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER app_user;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, SELECT ON vehicles TO app_user;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW GRANTS FOR app_user;
    
      database_name | schema_name | table_name | grantee  | privilege_type  
    +---------------+-------------+------------+----------+----------------+
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user | DELETE          
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user | INSERT          
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user | SELECT          
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user | UPDATE          
    (4 rows)
    
  7. As the root user, create a SQL user named report_user with permissions to only read from the vehicles table:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER report_user;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT SELECT ON vehicles TO report_user;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW GRANTS FOR report_user;
    
      database_name | schema_name | table_name |   grantee   | privilege_type  
    +---------------+-------------+------------+-------------+----------------+
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | report_user | SELECT          
    (1 row)
    

The following example uses MovR, a fictional vehicle-sharing application, to demonstrate CockroachDB SQL statements. For more information about the MovR example application and dataset, see MovR: A Global Vehicle-sharing App.

Let's say we want to create the following access control setup for the movr database:

  • Two database admins (named db_admin_1 and db_admin_2) who can perform all database operations for existing tables as well as for tables added in the future.
  • Three app users (named app_user_1, app_user_2, and app_user_3) who can add, read update, and delete vehicles from the vehicles table.
  • Five users (named report_user_1, report_user_2, report_user_3, report_user_4, report_user_5) who can only read the vehicles table.
  1. Use the cockroach demo command to load the movr database and dataset into a CockroachDB cluster.:

    icon/buttons/copy
    $ cockroach demo
    
  2. Create the database admin role (named db_admin_role) whose members can perform all database operations for existing tables as well as for tables added in the future:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE ROLE db_admin_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW ROLES;
    
        username    |  options   | member_of
    ----------------+------------+------------
      admin         | CREATEROLE | {}
      db_admin_role | NOLOGIN    | {}
      root          | CREATEROLE | {admin}
    (3 rows)
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT ALL ON DATABASE movr TO db_admin_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT ALL ON TABLE * TO db_admin_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW GRANTS ON DATABASE movr;
    
      database_name |    schema_name     |    grantee    | privilege_type
    ----------------+--------------------+---------------+-----------------
      movr          | crdb_internal      | admin         | ALL
      movr          | crdb_internal      | db_admin_role | ALL
      movr          | crdb_internal      | root          | ALL
      movr          | information_schema | admin         | ALL
      movr          | information_schema | db_admin_role | ALL
      movr          | information_schema | root          | ALL
      movr          | pg_catalog         | admin         | ALL
      movr          | pg_catalog         | db_admin_role | ALL
      movr          | pg_catalog         | root          | ALL
      movr          | public             | admin         | ALL
      movr          | public             | db_admin_role | ALL
      movr          | public             | root          | ALL
    (12 rows)
    
  3. Create two database admin users (named db_admin_1 and db_admin_2) and grant them membership to the db_admin_role role:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER db_admin_1;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER db_admin_2;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT db_admin_role TO db_admin_1, db_admin_2;
    
  4. Create a role named app_user_role whose members can add, read update, and delete vehicles to the vehicles table.

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE ROLE app_user_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW ROLES;
    
        username    |  options   |    member_of
    ----------------+------------+------------------
      admin         | CREATEROLE | {}
      app_user_role | NOLOGIN    | {}
      db_admin_1    |            | {db_admin_role}
      db_admin_2    |            | {db_admin_role}
      db_admin_role | NOLOGIN    | {}
      root          | CREATEROLE | {admin}
    (6 rows)
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT ON TABLE vehicles TO app_user_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW GRANTS ON vehicles;
    
      database_name | schema_name | table_name |    grantee    | privilege_type
    ----------------+-------------+------------+---------------+-----------------
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | admin         | ALL
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role | DELETE
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role | INSERT
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role | SELECT
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role | UPDATE
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | db_admin_role | ALL
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | root          | ALL
    (7 rows)
    
  5. Create three app users (named app_user_1, app_user_2, and app_user_3) and grant them membership to the app_user_role role:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER app_user_1;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER app_user_2;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER app_user_3;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT app_user_role TO app_user_1, app_user_2, app_user_3;
    
  6. Create a role named report_user_role whose members can only read the vehicles table.

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE ROLE report_user_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW ROLES;
    
          username     |  options   |    member_of
    -------------------+------------+------------------
      admin            | CREATEROLE | {}
      app_user_1       |            | {app_user_role}
      app_user_2       |            | {app_user_role}
      app_user_3       |            | {app_user_role}
      app_user_role    | NOLOGIN    | {}
      db_admin_1       |            | {db_admin_role}
      db_admin_2       |            | {db_admin_role}
      db_admin_role    | NOLOGIN    | {}
      report_user_role | NOLOGIN    | {}
      root             | CREATEROLE | {admin}
    (10 rows)
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT SELECT ON vehicles TO report_user_role;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > SHOW GRANTS ON vehicles;
    
      database_name | schema_name | table_name |     grantee      | privilege_type
    ----------------+-------------+------------+------------------+-----------------
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | admin            | ALL
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role    | DELETE
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role    | INSERT
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role    | SELECT
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | app_user_role    | UPDATE
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | db_admin_role    | ALL
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | report_user_role | SELECT
      movr          | public      | vehicles   | root             | ALL
    (8 rows)
    
  7. Create five report users (named report_user_1, report_user_2, report_user_3, report_user_4, and report_user_5) and grant them membership to the report_user_role role:

    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER report_user_1;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER report_user_2;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER report_user_3;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER report_user_4;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > CREATE USER report_user_5;
    
    icon/buttons/copy
    > GRANT report_user_role TO report_user_1, report_user_2, report_user_3, report_user_4, report_user_5;
    

See also


Yes No