Performance Benchmarking with TPC-C

This page shows you how to reproduce CockroachDB TPC-C performance benchmarking results. Across all scales, CockroachDB can process tpmC (new order transactions per minute) at near maximum efficiency. Start by choosing the scale you're interested in:

Workload Cluster size Warehouses Data size
Local 3 nodes on your laptop 10 2 GB
Local (multi-region) 9 in-memory nodes on your laptop using cockroach demo 10 2 GB
Small 3 nodes on c5d.4xlarge machines 2500 200 GB
Medium 15 nodes on c5d.4xlarge machines 13,000 1.04 TB
Large 81 nodes on c5d.9xlarge machines 140,000 11.2 TB

Before you begin

Step 1. Start CockroachDB

Warning:

The --insecure flag used in this tutorial is intended for non-production testing only. To run CockroachDB in production, use a secure cluster instead.

In the terminal, use the cockroach demo command to start a simulated multi-region cluster with 9 nodes:

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cockroach demo --global --nodes 9 --no-example-database --insecure

This simulated multi-region deployment will take advantage of CockroachDB's multi-region SQL statements to deliver improved ease of use and performance.

Step 2. Import the TPC-C dataset

CockroachDB comes with a number of built-in workloads for simulating client traffic. This step features CockroachDB's version of the TPC-C workload.

In a second terminal window (call it terminal 2), use cockroach workload to load the initial schema and data:

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cockroach workload init tpcc \
--warehouses=10 \
--partitions=3 \
--survival-goal zone \
--regions=europe-west1,us-east1,us-west1 \
'postgresql://root@127.0.0.1:26257/tpcc?sslmode=disable'

This will load 2 GB of data for 10 "warehouses", and spread the data across all 3 regions with a ZONE survival goal.

Step 3. Run the benchmark

Run the workload for 10 "warehouses" of data for ten minutes. In order to spread the simulated workload across the 3 regions specified in the previous step, you will need to start each of the following commands from 3 different terminals:

In terminal 2:

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cockroach workload run tpcc \
--warehouses=10 \
--duration=10m \
--wait=true \
--partitions=3 \
--partition-affinity=0 \
--tolerate-errors \
--survival-goal zone \
--regions=europe-west1,us-east1,us-west1 \
'postgresql://root@127.0.0.1:26257/tpcc?sslmode=disable'

In terminal 3:

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cockroach workload run tpcc \
--warehouses=10 \
--duration=10m \
--wait=true \
--partitions=3 \
--partition-affinity=1 \
--tolerate-errors \
--survival-goal zone \
--regions=europe-west1,us-east1,us-west1 \
'postgresql://root@127.0.0.1:26260/tpcc?sslmode=disable'

In terminal 4:

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cockroach workload run tpcc \
--warehouses=10 \
--duration=10m \
--wait=true \
--partitions=3 \
--partition-affinity=2 \
--tolerate-errors \
--survival-goal zone \
--regions=europe-west1,us-east1,us-west1 \
'postgresql://root@127.0.0.1:26263/tpcc?sslmode=disable'

You'll see per-operation statistics every second:

Initializing 20 connections...
Initializing 100 workers and preparing statements...
_elapsed___errors__ops/sec(inst)___ops/sec(cum)__p50(ms)__p95(ms)__p99(ms)_pMax(ms)
    1.0s        0            0.0            0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0 delivery
    1.0s        0            0.0            0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0 newOrder
...
  105.0s        0            0.0            0.2      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0 delivery
  105.0s        0            4.0            1.8     44.0     46.1     46.1     46.1 newOrder
  105.0s        0            0.0            0.2      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0 orderStatus
  105.0s        0            1.0            2.0     14.7     14.7     14.7     14.7 payment
  105.0s        0            0.0            0.2      0.0      0.0      0.0      0.0 stockLevel
...
Tip:

For more tpcc options, use cockroach workload run tpcc --help. For details about other built-in load generators, use cockroach workload run --help.

Step 4. Interpret the results

Once the workload has finished running, you'll see a final output line in each terminal window.

In terminal 2:

_elapsed_______tpmC____efc__avg(ms)__p50(ms)__p90(ms)__p95(ms)__p99(ms)_pMax(ms)
  600.0s       36.5  33.2%    170.6     44.0    536.9    872.4   1543.5   3087.0

In terminal 3:

_elapsed_______tpmC____efc__avg(ms)__p50(ms)__p90(ms)__p95(ms)__p99(ms)_pMax(ms)
  600.0s       36.5  28.4%    147.0     41.9    453.0    671.1   1342.2   1946.2

In terminal 4:

_elapsed_______tpmC____efc__avg(ms)__p50(ms)__p90(ms)__p95(ms)__p99(ms)_pMax(ms)
  600.0s       36.5  28.4%    222.8     46.1    704.6   1140.9   1744.8   2952.8

You will also see some audit checks and latency statistics for each individual query in each terminal. Some of those checks might indicate that they were SKIPPED due to insufficient data since this is a small run on a small machine. For a more comprehensive test, run workload for a longer duration (e.g., two hours). The tpmC (new order transactions/minute) number is the headline number and efc ("efficiency") tells you how close CockroachDB gets to theoretical maximum tpmC. In a perfect execution, the sum of efficiency across all partitions would be 100%.

Step 5. Clean up

When you're done with your test cluster, switch back to terminal 1 where cockroach demo is still running and issue \q at the SQL prompt to gracefully shut down the demo cluster.

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\q

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