Warning:
Cockroach Labs will stop providing Assistance Support for this version on May 12, 2021. Prior to that date, upgrade to a more recent version to continue receiving support. For more details, see the Release Support Policy.

This tutorial shows you how build a simple Java application with CockroachDB and jOOQ.

CockroachDB is supported in jOOQ Professional and Enterprise editions.

Note:

We recommend using Java versions 8+ with CockroachDB.

Tip:

For another use of jOOQ with CockroachDB, see our examples-orms repository.

Before you begin

  1. Install CockroachDB.
  2. Start up a secure or insecure local cluster.
  3. Choose the instructions that correspond to whether your cluster is secure or insecure:

Step 1. Install Maven

This tutorial uses the Maven build tool to manage application dependencies.

To install Maven on Mac, run the following command:

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$ brew install maven

To install Maven on a Debian-based Linux distribution like Ubuntu:

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$ apt-get install maven

For other ways to install Maven, see its official documentation.

Step 2. Install jOOQ

Download the free trial of jOOQ Professional or Enterprise edition from jOOQ's website, and unzip the file.

To install jOOQ to your machine's local Maven repository, run the maven-install.sh script included in the jOOQ install folder:

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$ chmod +x maven-install.sh
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$ ./maven-install.sh

Step 3. Create the maxroach user and bank database

Start the built-in SQL shell:

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$ cockroach sql --certs-dir=certs

In the SQL shell, issue the following statements to create the maxroach user and bank database:

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> CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS maxroach;
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> CREATE DATABASE bank;

Give the maxroach user the necessary permissions:

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> GRANT ALL ON DATABASE bank TO maxroach;

Exit the SQL shell:

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> \q

Step 4. Generate a certificate for the maxroach user

Create a certificate and key for the maxroach user by running the following command. The code samples will run as this user.

The --also-generate-pkcs8-key flag generates a key in PKCS#8 format, which is the standard key encoding format in Java. In this case, the generated PKCS8 key will be named client.maxroach.key.pk8.

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$ cockroach cert create-client maxroach --certs-dir=certs --ca-key=my-safe-directory/ca.key --also-generate-pkcs8-key

Step 5. Run the Java code

The code below uses jOOQ to map Java methods to SQL operations. It performs the following steps, some of which correspond to method calls of the Sample class.

  1. Inputs the db.sql file to the database. db.sql includes SQL statements that create an accounts table in the bank database.
  2. Inserts rows into the accounts table using session.save(new Account(int id, int balance)) (see Sample.addAccounts()).
  3. Transfers money from one account to another, printing out account balances before and after the transfer (see transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount)).
  4. Prints out account balances before and after the transfer (see Sample.getAccountBalance(long id)).

In addition, the code shows a pattern for automatically handling transaction retries by wrapping transactions in a higher-order function Sample.runTransaction(). It also includes a method for testing the retry handling logic (Sample.forceRetryLogic()), which will be run if you set the FORCE_RETRY variable to true.

To run it:

  1. Download and unzip jooq-basic-sample.zip.
  2. Open jooq-basic-sample/src/main/java/com/cockroachlabs/Sample.java, and edit the connection string passed to DriverManager.getConnection() in the Sample class's main() method so that the certificate paths are fully and correctly specified.
  3. Compile and run the code using Maven:

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    $ cd jooq-basic-sample
    
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    $ mvn compile
    
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    $ mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=com.cockroachlabs.Sample
    

Here are the contents of Sample.java, the Java file containing the main Sample class:

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package com.cockroachlabs;

import com.cockroachlabs.example.jooq.db.Tables;
import com.cockroachlabs.example.jooq.db.tables.records.AccountsRecord;
import org.jooq.DSLContext;
import org.jooq.SQLDialect;
import org.jooq.Source;
import org.jooq.conf.RenderQuotedNames;
import org.jooq.conf.Settings;
import org.jooq.exception.DataAccessException;
import org.jooq.impl.DSL;

import java.io.InputStream;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;
import java.util.function.Function;

import static com.cockroachlabs.example.jooq.db.Tables.ACCOUNTS;

public class Sample {

    private static final Random RAND = new Random();
    private static final boolean FORCE_RETRY = false;
    private static final String RETRY_SQL_STATE = "40001";
    private static final int MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT = 6;

    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> addAccounts() {
        return ctx -> {
            long rv = 0;

            ctx.delete(ACCOUNTS).execute();
            ctx.batchInsert(
                new AccountsRecord(1L,   1000L),
                new AccountsRecord(2L,    250L),
                new AccountsRecord(3L, 314159L)
            ).execute();

            rv = 1;
            System.out.printf("APP: addAccounts() --> %d\n", rv);
            return rv;
        };
    }

    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount) {
        return ctx -> {
            long rv = 0;

            AccountsRecord fromAccount = ctx.fetchSingle(ACCOUNTS, ACCOUNTS.ID.eq(fromId));
            AccountsRecord toAccount = ctx.fetchSingle(ACCOUNTS, ACCOUNTS.ID.eq(toId));

            if (!(amount > fromAccount.getBalance())) {
                fromAccount.setBalance(fromAccount.getBalance() - amount);
                toAccount.setBalance(toAccount.getBalance() + amount);

                ctx.batchUpdate(fromAccount, toAccount).execute();
                rv = amount;
                System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d\n", fromId, toId, amount, rv);
            }

            return rv;
        };
    }

    // Test our retry handling logic if FORCE_RETRY is true.  This
    // method is only used to test the retry logic.  It is not
    // intended for production code.
    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> forceRetryLogic() {
        return ctx -> {
            long rv = -1;
            try {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: BEFORE EXCEPTION\n");
                ctx.execute("SELECT crdb_internal.force_retry('1s')");
            } catch (DataAccessException e) {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: AFTER EXCEPTION\n");
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
    }

    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> getAccountBalance(long id) {
        return ctx -> {
            AccountsRecord account = ctx.fetchSingle(ACCOUNTS, ACCOUNTS.ID.eq(id));
            long balance = account.getBalance();
            System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", id, balance);
            return balance;
        };
    }

    // Run SQL code in a way that automatically handles the
    // transaction retry logic so we don't have to duplicate it in
    // various places.
    private static long runTransaction(DSLContext session, Function<DSLContext, Long> fn) {
        AtomicLong rv = new AtomicLong(0L);
        AtomicInteger attemptCount = new AtomicInteger(0);

        while (attemptCount.get() < MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
            attemptCount.incrementAndGet();

            if (attemptCount.get() > 1) {
                System.out.printf("APP: Entering retry loop again, iteration %d\n", attemptCount.get());
            }

            if (session.connectionResult(connection -> {
                connection.setAutoCommit(false);
                System.out.printf("APP: BEGIN;\n");

                if (attemptCount.get() == MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
                    String err = String.format("hit max of %s attempts, aborting", MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT);
                    throw new RuntimeException(err);
                }

                // This block is only used to test the retry logic.
                // It is not necessary in production code.  See also
                // the method 'testRetryLogic()'.
                if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                    session.fetch("SELECT now()");
                }

                try {
                    rv.set(fn.apply(session));
                    if (rv.get() != -1) {
                        connection.commit();
                        System.out.printf("APP: COMMIT;\n");
                        return true;
                    }
                } catch (DataAccessException | SQLException e) {
                    String sqlState = e instanceof SQLException ? ((SQLException) e).getSQLState() : ((DataAccessException) e).sqlState();

                    if (RETRY_SQL_STATE.equals(sqlState)) {
                        // Since this is a transaction retry error, we
                        // roll back the transaction and sleep a little
                        // before trying again.  Each time through the
                        // loop we sleep for a little longer than the last
                        // time (A.K.A. exponential backoff).
                        System.out.printf("APP: retryable exception occurred:\n    sql state = [%s]\n    message = [%s]\n    retry counter = %s\n", sqlState, e.getMessage(), attemptCount.get());
                        System.out.printf("APP: ROLLBACK;\n");
                        connection.rollback();
                        int sleepMillis = (int)(Math.pow(2, attemptCount.get()) * 100) + RAND.nextInt(100);
                        System.out.printf("APP: Hit 40001 transaction retry error, sleeping %s milliseconds\n", sleepMillis);
                        try {
                            Thread.sleep(sleepMillis);
                        } catch (InterruptedException ignored) {
                            // no-op
                        }
                        rv.set(-1L);
                    } else {
                        throw e;
                    }
                }

                return false;
            })) {
                break;
            }
        }

        return rv.get();
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        try (Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(
                "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:26257/bank?ssl=true&sslmode=require&sslrootcert=certs/ca.crt&sslkey=certs/client.maxroach.key.pk8&sslcert=certs/client.maxroach.crt",
                "maxroach",
                ""
        )) {
            DSLContext ctx = DSL.using(connection, SQLDialect.COCKROACHDB, new Settings()
                .withExecuteLogging(true)
                .withRenderQuotedNames(RenderQuotedNames.NEVER));

            // Initialise database with db.sql script
            try (InputStream in = Sample.class.getResourceAsStream("/db.sql")) {
                ctx.parser().parse(Source.of(in).readString()).executeBatch();
            }

            long fromAccountId = 1;
            long toAccountId = 2;
            long transferAmount = 100;

            if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                System.out.printf("APP: About to test retry logic in 'runTransaction'\n");
                runTransaction(ctx, forceRetryLogic());
            } else {

                runTransaction(ctx, addAccounts());
                long fromBalance = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                long toBalance = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                if (fromBalance != -1 && toBalance != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalance);
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalance);
                }

                // Transfer $100 from account 1 to account 2
                long transferResult = runTransaction(ctx, transferFunds(fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount));
                if (transferResult != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d \n", fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount, transferResult);

                    long fromBalanceAfter = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                    long toBalanceAfter = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                    if (fromBalanceAfter != -1 && toBalanceAfter != -1) {
                        // Success!
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalanceAfter);
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalanceAfter);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Toward the end of the output, you should see:

APP: BEGIN;
APP: addAccounts() --> 1
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: BEGIN;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: COMMIT;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350

To verify that the account balances were updated successfully, start the built-in SQL client:

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$ cockroach sql --certs-dir=certs

To check the account balances, issue the following statement:

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SELECT id, balance FROM accounts;
  id | balance
+----+---------+
   1 |     900
   2 |     350
   3 |  314159
(3 rows)

Step 3. Create the maxroach user and bank database

Start the built-in SQL shell:

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$ cockroach sql --insecure

In the SQL shell, issue the following statements to create the maxroach user and bank database:

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> CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS maxroach;
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> CREATE DATABASE bank;

Give the maxroach user the necessary permissions:

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> GRANT ALL ON DATABASE bank TO maxroach;

Exit the SQL shell:

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> \q

Step 4. Run the Java code

The code below uses jOOQ to map Java methods to SQL operations. It performs the following steps, some of which correspond to method calls of the Sample class.

  1. Inputs the db.sql file to the database. db.sql includes SQL statements that create an accounts table in the bank database.
  2. Inserts rows into the accounts table using session.save(new Account(int id, int balance)) (see Sample.addAccounts()).
  3. Transfers money from one account to another, printing out account balances before and after the transfer (see transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount)).
  4. Prints out account balances before and after the transfer (see Sample.getAccountBalance(long id)).

In addition, the code shows a pattern for automatically handling transaction retries by wrapping transactions in a higher-order function Sample.runTransaction(). It also includes a method for testing the retry handling logic (Sample.forceRetryLogic()), which will be run if you set the FORCE_RETRY variable to true.

To run it:

  1. Download and unzip jooq-basic-sample.zip.
  2. Compile and run the code using Maven:

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    $ cd jooq-basic-sample
    
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    $ mvn compile
    
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    $ mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=com.cockroachlabs.Sample
    

Here are the contents of Sample.java, the Java file containing the main Sample class:

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package com.cockroachlabs;

import com.cockroachlabs.example.jooq.db.Tables;
import com.cockroachlabs.example.jooq.db.tables.records.AccountsRecord;
import org.jooq.DSLContext;
import org.jooq.SQLDialect;
import org.jooq.Source;
import org.jooq.conf.RenderQuotedNames;
import org.jooq.conf.Settings;
import org.jooq.exception.DataAccessException;
import org.jooq.impl.DSL;

import java.io.InputStream;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicLong;
import java.util.function.Function;

import static com.cockroachlabs.example.jooq.db.Tables.ACCOUNTS;

public class Sample {

    private static final Random RAND = new Random();
    private static final boolean FORCE_RETRY = false;
    private static final String RETRY_SQL_STATE = "40001";
    private static final int MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT = 6;

    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> addAccounts() {
        return ctx -> {
            long rv = 0;

            ctx.delete(ACCOUNTS).execute();
            ctx.batchInsert(
                new AccountsRecord(1L,   1000L),
                new AccountsRecord(2L,    250L),
                new AccountsRecord(3L, 314159L)
            ).execute();

            rv = 1;
            System.out.printf("APP: addAccounts() --> %d\n", rv);
            return rv;
        };
    }

    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount) {
        return ctx -> {
            long rv = 0;

            AccountsRecord fromAccount = ctx.fetchSingle(ACCOUNTS, ACCOUNTS.ID.eq(fromId));
            AccountsRecord toAccount = ctx.fetchSingle(ACCOUNTS, ACCOUNTS.ID.eq(toId));

            if (!(amount > fromAccount.getBalance())) {
                fromAccount.setBalance(fromAccount.getBalance() - amount);
                toAccount.setBalance(toAccount.getBalance() + amount);

                ctx.batchUpdate(fromAccount, toAccount).execute();
                rv = amount;
                System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d\n", fromId, toId, amount, rv);
            }

            return rv;
        };
    }

    // Test our retry handling logic if FORCE_RETRY is true.  This
    // method is only used to test the retry logic.  It is not
    // intended for production code.
    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> forceRetryLogic() {
        return ctx -> {
            long rv = -1;
            try {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: BEFORE EXCEPTION\n");
                ctx.execute("SELECT crdb_internal.force_retry('1s')");
            } catch (DataAccessException e) {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: AFTER EXCEPTION\n");
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
    }

    private static Function<DSLContext, Long> getAccountBalance(long id) {
        return ctx -> {
            AccountsRecord account = ctx.fetchSingle(ACCOUNTS, ACCOUNTS.ID.eq(id));
            long balance = account.getBalance();
            System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", id, balance);
            return balance;
        };
    }

    // Run SQL code in a way that automatically handles the
    // transaction retry logic so we don't have to duplicate it in
    // various places.
    private static long runTransaction(DSLContext session, Function<DSLContext, Long> fn) {
        AtomicLong rv = new AtomicLong(0L);
        AtomicInteger attemptCount = new AtomicInteger(0);

        while (attemptCount.get() < MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
            attemptCount.incrementAndGet();

            if (attemptCount.get() > 1) {
                System.out.printf("APP: Entering retry loop again, iteration %d\n", attemptCount.get());
            }

            if (session.connectionResult(connection -> {
                connection.setAutoCommit(false);
                System.out.printf("APP: BEGIN;\n");

                if (attemptCount.get() == MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
                    String err = String.format("hit max of %s attempts, aborting", MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT);
                    throw new RuntimeException(err);
                }

                // This block is only used to test the retry logic.
                // It is not necessary in production code.  See also
                // the method 'testRetryLogic()'.
                if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                    session.fetch("SELECT now()");
                }

                try {
                    rv.set(fn.apply(session));
                    if (rv.get() != -1) {
                        connection.commit();
                        System.out.printf("APP: COMMIT;\n");
                        return true;
                    }
                } catch (DataAccessException | SQLException e) {
                    String sqlState = e instanceof SQLException ? ((SQLException) e).getSQLState() : ((DataAccessException) e).sqlState();

                    if (RETRY_SQL_STATE.equals(sqlState)) {
                        // Since this is a transaction retry error, we
                        // roll back the transaction and sleep a little
                        // before trying again.  Each time through the
                        // loop we sleep for a little longer than the last
                        // time (A.K.A. exponential backoff).
                        System.out.printf("APP: retryable exception occurred:\n    sql state = [%s]\n    message = [%s]\n    retry counter = %s\n", sqlState, e.getMessage(), attemptCount.get());
                        System.out.printf("APP: ROLLBACK;\n");
                        connection.rollback();
                        int sleepMillis = (int)(Math.pow(2, attemptCount.get()) * 100) + RAND.nextInt(100);
                        System.out.printf("APP: Hit 40001 transaction retry error, sleeping %s milliseconds\n", sleepMillis);
                        try {
                            Thread.sleep(sleepMillis);
                        } catch (InterruptedException ignored) {
                            // no-op
                        }
                        rv.set(-1L);
                    } else {
                        throw e;
                    }
                }

                return false;
            })) {
                break;
            }
        }

        return rv.get();
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        try (Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(
                "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:26257/bank?sslmode=disable",
                "maxroach",
                ""
        )) {
            DSLContext ctx = DSL.using(connection, SQLDialect.COCKROACHDB, new Settings()
                .withExecuteLogging(true)
                .withRenderQuotedNames(RenderQuotedNames.NEVER));

            // Initialise database with db.sql script
            try (InputStream in = Sample.class.getResourceAsStream("/db.sql")) {
                ctx.parser().parse(Source.of(in).readString()).executeBatch();
            }

            long fromAccountId = 1;
            long toAccountId = 2;
            long transferAmount = 100;

            if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                System.out.printf("APP: About to test retry logic in 'runTransaction'\n");
                runTransaction(ctx, forceRetryLogic());
            } else {

                runTransaction(ctx, addAccounts());
                long fromBalance = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                long toBalance = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                if (fromBalance != -1 && toBalance != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalance);
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalance);
                }

                // Transfer $100 from account 1 to account 2
                long transferResult = runTransaction(ctx, transferFunds(fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount));
                if (transferResult != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d \n", fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount, transferResult);

                    long fromBalanceAfter = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                    long toBalanceAfter = runTransaction(ctx, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                    if (fromBalanceAfter != -1 && toBalanceAfter != -1) {
                        // Success!
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalanceAfter);
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalanceAfter);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

Toward the end of the output, you should see:

APP: BEGIN;
APP: addAccounts() --> 1
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: BEGIN;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: COMMIT;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350

To verify that the account balances were updated successfully, start the built-in SQL client:

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$ cockroach sql --insecure

To check the account balances, issue the following statement:

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SELECT id, balance FROM accounts;
  id | balance
+----+---------+
   1 |     900
   2 |     350
   3 |  314159
(3 rows)

What's next?

Read more about using jOOQ, or check out a more realistic implementation of jOOQ with CockroachDB in our examples-orms repository.

You might also be interested in the following pages:



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