Warning:
Cockroach Labs will stop providing Assistance Support for this version on May 12, 2021. Prior to that date, upgrade to a more recent version to continue receiving support. For more details, see the Release Support Policy.

This tutorial shows you how build a simple Java application with CockroachDB and the Hibernate ORM.

Note:

We recommend using Java versions 8+ with CockroachDB.

Tip:

For another use of Hibernate with CockroachDB, see our examples-orms repository.

Before you begin

  1. Install CockroachDB.
  2. Start up a secure or insecure local cluster.
  3. Choose the instructions that correspond to whether your cluster is secure or insecure:

Step 1. Install the Gradle build tool

This tutorial uses the Gradle build tool to get all dependencies for your application, including Hibernate.

To install Gradle on Mac, run the following command:

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$ brew install gradle

To install Gradle on a Debian-based Linux distribution like Ubuntu:

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$ apt-get install gradle

To install Gradle on a Red Hat-based Linux distribution like Fedora:

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$ dnf install gradle

For other ways to install Gradle, see its official documentation.

Step 2. Create the maxroach user and bank database

Start the built-in SQL shell:

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$ cockroach sql --certs-dir=certs

In the SQL shell, issue the following statements to create the maxroach user and bank database:

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> CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS maxroach;
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> CREATE DATABASE bank;

Give the maxroach user the necessary permissions:

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> GRANT ALL ON DATABASE bank TO maxroach;

Exit the SQL shell:

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> \q

Step 3. Generate a certificate for the maxroach user

Create a certificate and key for the maxroach user by running the following command. The code samples will run as this user.

You can pass the --also-generate-pkcs8-key flag to generate a key in PKCS#8 format, which is the standard key encoding format in Java. In this case, the generated PKCS8 key will be named client.maxroach.key.pk8.

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$ cockroach cert create-client maxroach --certs-dir=certs --ca-key=my-safe-directory/ca.key --also-generate-pkcs8-key

Step 4. Run the Java code

The code below uses Hibernate to map Java methods to SQL operations. It perform the following steps which roughly correspond to method calls in the Sample class.

  1. Create an accounts table in the bank database as specified by the Hibernate Account class.
  2. Inserts rows into the table using session.save(new Account(int id, int balance)) (see Sample.addAccounts()).
  3. Transfer money from one account to another, printing out account balances before and after the transfer (see transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount)).
  4. Print out account balances before and after the transfer (see Sample.getAccountBalance(long id)).

In addition, the code shows a pattern for automatically handling transaction retries by wrapping transactions in a higher-order function Sample.runTransaction(). It also includes a method for testing the retry handling logic (Sample.forceRetryLogic()), which will be run if you set the FORCE_RETRY variable to true.

It does all of the above using the practices we recommend for using Hibernate (and the underlying JDBC connection) with CockroachDB, which are listed in the Recommended Practices section below.

To run it:

  1. Download and extract hibernate-basic-sample.tgz. The settings in hibernate.cfg.xml specify how to connect to the database.

    Note:

    The version of the CockroachDB Hibernate dialect in hibernate.cfg.xml corresponds to a version of CockroachDB. For more information, see Install Client Drivers: Hibernate.

  2. Compile and run the code using build.gradle, which will also download the dependencies.

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    $ gradle run
    
Tip:

To clone a version of the code below that connects to insecure clusters, run the command below. Note that you will need to edit the connection string to use the certificates that you generated when you set up your secure cluster.

git clone https://github.com/cockroachlabs/hello-world-java-hibernate/

The contents of Sample.java:

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package com.cockroachlabs;

import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.JDBCException;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;

import java.util.*;
import java.util.function.Function;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

public class Sample {

    private static final Random RAND = new Random();
    private static final boolean FORCE_RETRY = false;
    private static final String RETRY_SQL_STATE = "40001";
    private static final int MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT = 6;

    // Account is our model, which corresponds to the "accounts" database table.
    @Entity
    @Table(name="accounts")
    public static class Account {
        @Id
        @Column(name="id")
        public long id;

        public long getId() {
            return id;
        }

        @Column(name="balance")
        public long balance;
        public long getBalance() {
            return balance;
        }
        public void setBalance(long newBalance) {
            this.balance = newBalance;
        }

        // Convenience constructor.
        public Account(int id, int balance) {
            this.id = id;
            this.balance = balance;
        }

        // Hibernate needs a default (no-arg) constructor to create model objects.
        public Account() {}
    }

    private static Function<Session, Long> addAccounts() throws JDBCException{
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long rv = 0;
            try {
                s.save(new Account(1, 1000));
                s.save(new Account(2, 250));
                s.save(new Account(3, 314159));
                rv = 1;
                System.out.printf("APP: addAccounts() --> %d\n", rv);
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
        return f;
    }

    private static Function<Session, Long> transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount) throws JDBCException{
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long rv = 0;
            try {
                Account fromAccount = (Account) s.get(Account.class, fromId);
                Account toAccount = (Account) s.get(Account.class, toId);
                if (!(amount > fromAccount.getBalance())) {
                    fromAccount.balance -= amount;
                    toAccount.balance += amount;
                    s.save(fromAccount);
                    s.save(toAccount);
                    rv = amount;
                    System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d\n", fromId, toId, amount, rv);
                }
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
        return f;
    }

    // Test our retry handling logic if FORCE_RETRY is true.  This
    // method is only used to test the retry logic.  It is not
    // intended for production code.
    private static Function<Session, Long> forceRetryLogic() throws JDBCException {
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long rv = -1;
            try {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: BEFORE EXCEPTION\n");
                s.createNativeQuery("SELECT crdb_internal.force_retry('1s')").executeUpdate();
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: AFTER EXCEPTION\n");
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
        return f;
    }

    private static Function<Session, Long> getAccountBalance(long id) throws JDBCException{
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long balance;
            try {
                Account account = s.get(Account.class, id);
                balance = account.getBalance();
                System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", id, balance);
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                throw e;
            }
            return balance;
        };
        return f;
    }

    // Run SQL code in a way that automatically handles the
    // transaction retry logic so we don't have to duplicate it in
    // various places.
    private static long runTransaction(Session session, Function<Session, Long> fn) {
        long rv = 0;
        int attemptCount = 0;

        while (attemptCount < MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
            attemptCount++;

            if (attemptCount > 1) {
                System.out.printf("APP: Entering retry loop again, iteration %d\n", attemptCount);
            }

            Transaction txn = session.beginTransaction();
            System.out.printf("APP: BEGIN;\n");

            if (attemptCount == MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
                String err = String.format("hit max of %s attempts, aborting", MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT);
                throw new RuntimeException(err);
            }

            // This block is only used to test the retry logic.
            // It is not necessary in production code.  See also
            // the method 'testRetryLogic()'.
            if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                session.createNativeQuery("SELECT now()").list();
            }

            try {
                rv = fn.apply(session);
                if (rv != -1) {
                    txn.commit();
                    System.out.printf("APP: COMMIT;\n");
                    break;
                }
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                if (RETRY_SQL_STATE.equals(e.getSQLState())) {
                    // Since this is a transaction retry error, we
                    // roll back the transaction and sleep a little
                    // before trying again.  Each time through the
                    // loop we sleep for a little longer than the last
                    // time (A.K.A. exponential backoff).
                    System.out.printf("APP: retryable exception occurred:\n    sql state = [%s]\n    message = [%s]\n    retry counter = %s\n", e.getSQLState(), e.getMessage(), attemptCount);
                    System.out.printf("APP: ROLLBACK;\n");
                    txn.rollback();
                    int sleepMillis = (int)(Math.pow(2, attemptCount) * 100) + RAND.nextInt(100);
                    System.out.printf("APP: Hit 40001 transaction retry error, sleeping %s milliseconds\n", sleepMillis);
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(sleepMillis);
                    } catch (InterruptedException ignored) {
                        // no-op
                    }
                    rv = -1;
                } else {
                    throw e;
                }
            }
        }
        return rv;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a SessionFactory based on our hibernate.cfg.xml configuration
        // file, which defines how to connect to the database.
        SessionFactory sessionFactory =
                new Configuration()
                        .configure("hibernate.cfg.xml")
                        .addAnnotatedClass(Account.class)
                        .buildSessionFactory();

        try (Session session = sessionFactory.openSession()) {
            long fromAccountId = 1;
            long toAccountId = 2;
            long transferAmount = 100;

            if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                System.out.printf("APP: About to test retry logic in 'runTransaction'\n");
                runTransaction(session, forceRetryLogic());
            } else {

                runTransaction(session, addAccounts());
                long fromBalance = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                long toBalance = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                if (fromBalance != -1 && toBalance != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalance);
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalance);
                }

                // Transfer $100 from account 1 to account 2
                long transferResult = runTransaction(session, transferFunds(fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount));
                if (transferResult != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d \n", fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount, transferResult);

                    long fromBalanceAfter = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                    long toBalanceAfter = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                    if (fromBalanceAfter != -1 && toBalanceAfter != -1) {
                        // Success!
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalanceAfter);
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalanceAfter);
                    }
                }
            }
        } finally {
            sessionFactory.close();
        }
    }
}

Toward the end of the output, you should see:

APP: BEGIN;
APP: addAccounts() --> 1
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: BEGIN;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: COMMIT;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350

To verify that the account balances were updated successfully, start the built-in SQL client:

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$ cockroach sql --certs-dir=certs --database=bank

To check the account balances, issue the following statement:

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SELECT id, balance FROM accounts;
  id | balance
+----+---------+
   1 |     900
   2 |     350
   3 |  314159
(3 rows)

Step 2. Create the maxroach user and bank database

Start the built-in SQL shell:

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$ cockroach sql --insecure

In the SQL shell, issue the following statements to create the maxroach user and bank database:

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> CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS maxroach;
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> CREATE DATABASE bank;

Give the maxroach user the necessary permissions:

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> GRANT ALL ON DATABASE bank TO maxroach;

Exit the SQL shell:

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> \q

Step 3. Run the Java code

The code below uses Hibernate to map Java methods to SQL operations. It perform the following steps which roughly correspond to method calls in the Sample class.

  1. Create an accounts table in the bank database as specified by the Hibernate Account class.
  2. Inserts rows into the table using session.save(new Account(int id, int balance)) (see Sample.addAccounts()).
  3. Transfer money from one account to another, printing out account balances before and after the transfer (see transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount)).
  4. Print out account balances before and after the transfer (see Sample.getAccountBalance(long id)).

In addition, the code shows a pattern for automatically handling transaction retries by wrapping transactions in a higher-order function Sample.runTransaction(). It also includes a method for testing the retry handling logic (Sample.forceRetryLogic()), which will be run if you set the FORCE_RETRY variable to true.

It does all of the above using the practices we recommend for using Hibernate (and the underlying JDBC connection) with CockroachDB, which are listed in the Recommended Practices section below.

To run it:

  1. Clone the hello-world-java-hibernate repo to your machine:

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    git clone https://github.com/cockroachlabs/hello-world-java-hibernate/
    
  2. Compile and run the code using build.gradle, which will also download the dependencies.

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    $ gradle run
    

The contents of Sample.java:

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package com.cockroachlabs;

import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.JDBCException;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;

import java.util.*;
import java.util.function.Function;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;

public class Sample {

    private static final Random RAND = new Random();
    private static final boolean FORCE_RETRY = false;
    private static final String RETRY_SQL_STATE = "40001";
    private static final int MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT = 6;

    // Account is our model, which corresponds to the "accounts" database table.
    @Entity
    @Table(name="accounts")
    public static class Account {
        @Id
        @Column(name="id")
        public long id;

        public long getId() {
            return id;
        }

        @Column(name="balance")
        public long balance;
        public long getBalance() {
            return balance;
        }
        public void setBalance(long newBalance) {
            this.balance = newBalance;
        }

        // Convenience constructor.
        public Account(int id, int balance) {
            this.id = id;
            this.balance = balance;
        }

        // Hibernate needs a default (no-arg) constructor to create model objects.
        public Account() {}
    }

    private static Function<Session, Long> addAccounts() throws JDBCException{
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long rv = 0;
            try {
                s.save(new Account(1, 1000));
                s.save(new Account(2, 250));
                s.save(new Account(3, 314159));
                rv = 1;
                System.out.printf("APP: addAccounts() --> %d\n", rv);
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
        return f;
    }

    private static Function<Session, Long> transferFunds(long fromId, long toId, long amount) throws JDBCException{
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long rv = 0;
            try {
                Account fromAccount = (Account) s.get(Account.class, fromId);
                Account toAccount = (Account) s.get(Account.class, toId);
                if (!(amount > fromAccount.getBalance())) {
                    fromAccount.balance -= amount;
                    toAccount.balance += amount;
                    s.save(fromAccount);
                    s.save(toAccount);
                    rv = amount;
                    System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d\n", fromId, toId, amount, rv);
                }
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
        return f;
    }

    // Test our retry handling logic if FORCE_RETRY is true.  This
    // method is only used to test the retry logic.  It is not
    // intended for production code.
    private static Function<Session, Long> forceRetryLogic() throws JDBCException {
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long rv = -1;
            try {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: BEFORE EXCEPTION\n");
                s.createNativeQuery("SELECT crdb_internal.force_retry('1s')").executeUpdate();
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                System.out.printf("APP: testRetryLogic: AFTER EXCEPTION\n");
                throw e;
            }
            return rv;
        };
        return f;
    }

    private static Function<Session, Long> getAccountBalance(long id) throws JDBCException{
        Function<Session, Long> f = s -> {
            long balance;
            try {
                Account account = s.get(Account.class, id);
                balance = account.getBalance();
                System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", id, balance);
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                throw e;
            }
            return balance;
        };
        return f;
    }

    // Run SQL code in a way that automatically handles the
    // transaction retry logic so we don't have to duplicate it in
    // various places.
    private static long runTransaction(Session session, Function<Session, Long> fn) {
        long rv = 0;
        int attemptCount = 0;

        while (attemptCount < MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
            attemptCount++;

            if (attemptCount > 1) {
                System.out.printf("APP: Entering retry loop again, iteration %d\n", attemptCount);
            }

            Transaction txn = session.beginTransaction();
            System.out.printf("APP: BEGIN;\n");

            if (attemptCount == MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT) {
                String err = String.format("hit max of %s attempts, aborting", MAX_ATTEMPT_COUNT);
                throw new RuntimeException(err);
            }

            // This block is only used to test the retry logic.
            // It is not necessary in production code.  See also
            // the method 'testRetryLogic()'.
            if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                session.createNativeQuery("SELECT now()").list();
            }

            try {
                rv = fn.apply(session);
                if (rv != -1) {
                    txn.commit();
                    System.out.printf("APP: COMMIT;\n");
                    break;
                }
            } catch (JDBCException e) {
                if (RETRY_SQL_STATE.equals(e.getSQLState())) {
                    // Since this is a transaction retry error, we
                    // roll back the transaction and sleep a little
                    // before trying again.  Each time through the
                    // loop we sleep for a little longer than the last
                    // time (A.K.A. exponential backoff).
                    System.out.printf("APP: retryable exception occurred:\n    sql state = [%s]\n    message = [%s]\n    retry counter = %s\n", e.getSQLState(), e.getMessage(), attemptCount);
                    System.out.printf("APP: ROLLBACK;\n");
                    txn.rollback();
                    int sleepMillis = (int)(Math.pow(2, attemptCount) * 100) + RAND.nextInt(100);
                    System.out.printf("APP: Hit 40001 transaction retry error, sleeping %s milliseconds\n", sleepMillis);
                    try {
                        Thread.sleep(sleepMillis);
                    } catch (InterruptedException ignored) {
                        // no-op
                    }
                    rv = -1;
                } else {
                    throw e;
                }
            }
        }
        return rv;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create a SessionFactory based on our hibernate.cfg.xml configuration
        // file, which defines how to connect to the database.
        SessionFactory sessionFactory =
                new Configuration()
                        .configure("hibernate.cfg.xml")
                        .addAnnotatedClass(Account.class)
                        .buildSessionFactory();

        try (Session session = sessionFactory.openSession()) {
            long fromAccountId = 1;
            long toAccountId = 2;
            long transferAmount = 100;

            if (FORCE_RETRY) {
                System.out.printf("APP: About to test retry logic in 'runTransaction'\n");
                runTransaction(session, forceRetryLogic());
            } else {

                runTransaction(session, addAccounts());
                long fromBalance = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                long toBalance = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                if (fromBalance != -1 && toBalance != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalance);
                    System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalance);
                }

                // Transfer $100 from account 1 to account 2
                long transferResult = runTransaction(session, transferFunds(fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount));
                if (transferResult != -1) {
                    // Success!
                    System.out.printf("APP: transferFunds(%d, %d, %d) --> %d \n", fromAccountId, toAccountId, transferAmount, transferResult);

                    long fromBalanceAfter = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(fromAccountId));
                    long toBalanceAfter = runTransaction(session, getAccountBalance(toAccountId));
                    if (fromBalanceAfter != -1 && toBalanceAfter != -1) {
                        // Success!
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", fromAccountId, fromBalanceAfter);
                        System.out.printf("APP: getAccountBalance(%d) --> %d\n", toAccountId, toBalanceAfter);
                    }
                }
            }
        } finally {
            sessionFactory.close();
        }
    }
}

Toward the end of the output, you should see:

APP: BEGIN;
APP: addAccounts() --> 1
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 1000
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 250
APP: BEGIN;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: COMMIT;
APP: transferFunds(1, 2, 100) --> 100
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: COMMIT;
APP: BEGIN;
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350
APP: COMMIT;
APP: getAccountBalance(1) --> 900
APP: getAccountBalance(2) --> 350

To verify that the account balances were updated successfully, start the built-in SQL client:

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$ cockroach sql --insecure --database=bank

To check the account balances, issue the following statement:

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SELECT id, balance FROM accounts;
  id | balance
+----+---------+
   1 |     900
   2 |     350
   3 |  314159
(3 rows)

Use IMPORT to read in large data sets

If you are trying to get a large data set into CockroachDB all at once (a bulk import), avoid writing client-side code altogether and use the IMPORT statement instead. It is much faster and more efficient than making a series of INSERTs and UPDATEs. It bypasses the SQL layer altogether and writes directly to the storage layer of the database.

For more information about importing data from Postgres, see Migrate from Postgres.

For more information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Use rewriteBatchedInserts for increased speed

We strongly recommend setting rewriteBatchedInserts=true; we have seen 2-3x performance improvements with it enabled. From the JDBC connection parameters documentation:

This will change batch inserts from insert into foo (col1, col2, col3) values (1,2,3) into insert into foo (col1, col2, col3) values (1,2,3), (4,5,6) this provides 2-3x performance improvement

Retrieve large data sets in chunks using cursors

New in v19.2: CockroachDB now supports the Postgres wire-protocol cursors for implicit transactions and explicit transactions executed to completion. This means the PGJDBC driver can use this protocol to stream queries with large result sets. This is much faster than paginating through results in SQL using LIMIT .. OFFSET.

For instructions showing how to use cursors in your Java code, see Getting results based on a cursor from the PGJDBC documentation.

Note that interleaved execution (partial execution of multiple statements within the same connection and transaction) is not supported when Statement.setFetchSize() is used.

What's next?

Read more about using the Hibernate ORM, or check out a more realistic implementation of Hibernate with CockroachDB in our examples-orms repository.

You might also be interested in the following pages:



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