Migrate with AWS Database Migration Service (DMS)

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This page has instructions for setting up AWS Database Migration Service (DMS) to migrate data to CockroachDB from an existing, publicly hosted database containing application data such as MySQL, Oracle, or PostgreSQL.

For a detailed tutorial about using AWS DMS and information about specific migration tasks, see the AWS DMS documentation site.

Note:

This feature is in preview. This feature is subject to change. To share feedback and/or issues, contact Support.

For any issues related to AWS DMS, aside from its interaction with CockroachDB as a migration target, contact AWS Support.

Note:

Using CockroachDB as a source database within AWS DMS is unsupported.

Before you begin

Complete the following items before starting this tutorial:

  • Configure a replication instance in AWS.
  • Configure a source endpoint in AWS pointing to your source database.
  • Ensure you have a secure, publicly available CockroachDB cluster running v22.1.8 or later.
  • Manually create all schema objects in the target CockroachDB cluster. This is required in order for AWS DMS to populate data successfully.

    Note:

    All tables must have an explicitly defined primary key. For more guidance, see Migrate Your Database to CockroachDB.

As of publishing, AWS DMS supports migrations from these relational databases (for a more accurate view of what is currently supported, see Sources for AWS DMS):

  • Amazon Aurora
  • Amazon DocumentDB (with MongoDB compatibility)
  • Amazon S3
  • IBM Db2 (LUW edition only)
  • MariaDB
  • Microsoft Azure SQL
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • MongoDB
  • MySQL
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL
  • SAP ASE

Step 1. Create a target endpoint pointing to CockroachDB

  1. In the AWS Console, open AWS DMS.
  2. Open Endpoints in the sidebar. A list of endpoints will display, if any exist.
  3. In the top-right portion of the window, select Create endpoint. AWS-DMS-Create-Endpoint

    A configuration page will open.

  4. In the Endpoint type section, select Target endpoint.

  5. Supply an Endpoint identifier to identify the new target endpoint.

  6. In the Target engine dropdown, select PostgreSQL.

  7. Under Access to endpoint database, select Provide access information manually.

  8. Enter the Server name and Port of your CockroachDB cluster.

  9. Supply a User name, Password, and Database name from your CockroachDB cluster.

    Note:
    To connect to a CockroachDB Serverless cluster, set the Database name to {routing-id}.{database}. For information about where to find these parameters, see Connect to a CockroachDB Serverless Cluster.
    AWS-DMS-Endpoint-Configuration

  10. If needed, you can test the connection under Test endpoint connection (optional).

  11. To create the endpoint, select Create endpoint. AWS-DMS-Test-Endpoint

Step 2. Create a database migration task

A database migration task, also known as a replication task, controls what data are moved from the source database to the target database.

Step 2.1. Task configuration

  1. While in AWS DMS, select Database migration tasks in the sidebar. A list of database migration tasks will display, if any exist.
  2. In the top-right portion of the window, select Create task. AWS-DMS-Create-DB-Migration-Task

    A configuration page will open.

  3. Supply a Task identifier to identify the replication task.

  4. Select the Replication instance and Source database endpoint you created prior to starting this tutorial.

  5. For the Target database endpoint dropdown, select the CockroachDB endpoint created in the previous section.

  6. Select the appropriate Migration type based on your needs. AWS-DMS-Task-Configuration

Step 2.2. Task settings

  1. For the Editing mode radio button, keep Wizard selected.
  2. For the Target table preparation mode, select Truncate or Do nothing. AWS-DMS-Task-Settings
  3. Check the Enable CloudWatch logs option. We highly recommend this for troubleshooting potential migration issues.
  4. For the Target Load, select Detailed debug. AWS-DMS-CloudWatch-Logs
Note:

Drop tables on target is unsupported at this time.

Step 2.3. Table mappings

Note:

When specifying a range of tables to migrate, the following aspects of the source and target database schema must match:

  • Column names must be identical.
  • Column types must be compatible.
  • Column nullability must be identical.
  1. For the Editing mode radio button, keep Wizard selected.
  2. Select Add new selection rule.
  3. In the Schema dropdown, select Enter a schema.
  4. Supply the appropriate Source name (schema name), Table name, and Action. AWS-DMS-Table-Mappings
Note:

Use % as an example of a wildcard for all schemas in a PostgreSQL database. However, in MySQL, using % as a schema name imports all the databases, including the metadata/system ones, as MySQL treats schemas and databases as the same.

Step 3. Verify the migration

Data should now be moving from source to target. You can analyze the Table Statistics page for information about replication.

  1. In AWS DMS, open Database migration tasks in the sidebar.
  2. Select the task you created in Step 2.
  3. Select Table statistics below the Summary section.

If your migration failed for some reason, you can check the checkbox next to the table(s) you wish to re-migrate and select Reload table data.

AWS-DMS-Reload-Table-Data

Optional configurations

If using CockroachDB Dedicated, you can enable AWS PrivateLink to securely connect your AWS application with your CockroachDB Dedicated cluster using a private endpoint. To configure AWS PrivateLink with CockroachDB Dedicated, see Network Authorization.

BatchApplyEnabled

The BatchApplyEnabled setting can improve replication performance and is recommended for larger workloads.

  1. Open the existing database migration task.
  2. Choose your task, and then choose Modify.
  3. From the Task settings section, switch the Editing mode from Wizard to JSON editor. Locate the BatchApplyEnabled setting and change its value to true. Information about the BatchApplyEnabled setting can be found here.

AWS-DMS-BatchApplyEnabled

Known limitations

  • When using Truncate or Do nothing as a target table preparation mode, you cannot include tables with any hidden columns. You can verify which tables contain hidden columns by executing the following SQL query:
icon/buttons/copy
> SELECT table_catalog, table_schema, table_name, column_name FROM information_schema.columns WHERE is_hidden = 'YES';
  • Drop tables on target is not supported on v22.1 and earlier, and will error on import.

  • On v22.1.0 to v22.1.6, a migration may fail if there is an odd number of " characters in a row. AWS DMS will return an error message like the following: [TARGET_LOAD ]D: Command failed to load data with exit error code 0.. This is resolved in v22.1.7 and later.

Troubleshooting common issues

  • For visibility into migration problems:

  • Run the following query from within the target CockroachDB cluster to identify common problems with any tables that were migrated. If problems are found, explanatory messages will be returned in the cockroach sql shell.

    icon/buttons/copy
    > WITH
        invalid_columns
            AS (
                SELECT
                    'Table '
                    || table_schema
                    || '.'
                    || table_name
                    || ' has column '
                    || column_name
                    || ' which is hidden. Either drop the column or mark it as not hidden for DMS to work.'
                        AS fix_me
                FROM
                    information_schema.columns
                WHERE
                    is_hidden = 'YES'
                    AND table_name NOT LIKE 'awsdms_%'
            ),
        invalid_version
            AS (
                SELECT
                    'This cluster is on a version of CockroachDB which does not support AWS DMS. CockroachDB v21.2.13+ or v22.1+ is required.'
                        AS fix_me
                WHERE
                    split_part(
                        substr(
                            substring(
                                version(),
                                e'v\\d+\\.\\d+.\\d+'
                            ),
                            2
                        ),
                        '.',
                        1
                    )::INT8
                    < 22
                    AND NOT
                            (
                                split_part(
                                    substr(
                                        substring(
                                            version(),
                                            e'v\\d+\\.\\d+.\\d+'
                                        ),
                                        2
                                    ),
                                    '.',
                                    1
                                )::INT8
                                = 21
                                AND split_part(
                                        substr(
                                            substring(
                                                version(),
                                                e'v\\d+\\.\\d+.\\d+'
                                            ),
                                            2
                                        ),
                                        '.',
                                        2
                                    )::INT8
                                    = 2
                                AND split_part(
                                        substr(
                                            substring(
                                                version(),
                                                e'v\\d+\\.\\d+.\\d+'
                                            ),
                                            2
                                        ),
                                        '.',
                                        3
                                    )::INT8
                                    >= 13
                            )
            ),
        has_no_pk
            AS (
                SELECT
                    'Table '
                    || a.table_schema
                    || '.'
                    || a.table_name
                    || ' has column '
                    || a.column_name
                    || ' has no explicit PRIMARY KEY. Ensure you are not using target mode "Drop tables on target" and that this table has a PRIMARY KEY.'
                        AS fix_me
                FROM
                    information_schema.key_column_usage AS a
                    JOIN information_schema.columns AS b ON
                            a.table_schema = b.table_schema
                            AND a.table_name = b.table_name
                            AND a.column_name = b.column_name
                WHERE
                    b.is_hidden = 'YES'
                    AND a.column_name = 'rowid'
                    AND a.table_name NOT LIKE 'awsdms_%'
            )
    SELECT fix_me FROM has_no_pk
    UNION ALL SELECT fix_me FROM invalid_columns
    UNION ALL SELECT fix_me FROM invalid_version;
    
  • Refer to Debugging Your AWS DMS Migrations (Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3) on the AWS Database Blog.

  • If the migration is still failing, contact Support and include the following information when filing an issue:

    • Source database name.
    • CockroachDB version.
    • Source database schema.
    • CockroachDB database schema.
    • Any relevant logs (e.g., the last 100 lines preceding the AWS DMS failure).
    • Ideally, a sample dataset formatted as a database dump file or CSV.

See Also


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