REVOKE

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The REVOKE statement revokes privileges from users and/or roles. For the list of privileges that can be granted to and revoked from users and roles, see GRANT.

You can use REVOKE to directly revoke privileges from a role or user, or you can revoke membership to an existing role, which effectively revokes that role's privileges.

Note:

The REVOKE statement performs a schema change. For more information about how online schema changes work in CockroachDB, see Online Schema Changes.

Syntax

REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES ON grant_targets TYPE target_types ALL TABLES SEQUENCES FUNCTIONS PROCEDURES IN SCHEMA schema_name_list ADMIN OPTION FOR privilege_list SYSTEM ALL PRIVILEGES privilege_list privilege_list ON grant_targets TYPE target_types ALL TABLES SEQUENCES FUNCTIONS PROCEDURES IN SCHEMA schema_name_list GRANT OPTION FOR ALL PRIVILEGES privilege_list ON grant_targets TYPE target_types ALL TABLES FUNCTIONS PROCEDURES IN SCHEMA schema_name_list SYSTEM ALL PRIVILEGES privilege_list FROM role_spec_list

Parameters

Parameter Description
ALL
ALL PRIVILEGES
Revoke all privileges.
privilege_list A comma-separated list of privileges to revoke.
grant_targets A comma-separated list of database, table, sequence, or function names. The list should be preceded by the object type (e.g., DATABASE mydatabase). If the object type is not specified, all names are interpreted as table or sequence names.
target_types A comma-separated list of user-defined types.
ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA Revoke privileges on all sequences in a schema or list of schemas.
ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA Revoke privileges on all tables and sequences in a schema or list of schemas.
ALL FUNCTIONS IN SCHEMA. Revoke privileges on all user-defined functions in a schema or list of schemas.
schema_name_list A comma-separated list of schemas.
role_spec_list A comma-separated list of roles.

Supported privileges

The following privileges can be revoked:

Privilege Levels Description
ALL System, Database, Schema, Table, Sequence, Type For the object to which ALL is applied, grants all privileges at the system, database, schema, table, sequence, or type level.
BACKUP System, Database, Table Grants the ability to create backups at the system, database, or table level.
CANCELQUERY System Grants the ability to cancel queries.
CHANGEFEED Table Grants the ability to create changefeeds on a table.
CONNECT Database Grants the ability to view a database's metadata, which consists of objects in a database's information_schema and pg_catalog system catalogs. This allows the role to view the database's table, schemas, user-defined types, and list the database when running SHOW DATABASES. The CONNECT privilege is also required to run backups of the database.
CONTROLJOB System Grants the ability to pause, resume, and cancel jobs. Non-admin roles cannot control jobs created by admin roles.
CREATE Database, Schema, Table, Sequence Grants the ability to create objects at the database, schema, table, or sequence level. When applied at the database level, grants the ability to configure multi-region zone configs. In CockroachDB v23.2 and later, the cluster setting sql.auth.public_schema_create_privilege.enabled controls whether users receive CREATE privileges on the public schema or not. The setting applies at the time that the public schema is created, which happens whenever a database is created. The setting is true by default, but can be set to false for increased compatibility with PostgreSQL version 15 as described in this commit.
CREATEDB System Grants the ability to create or rename a database.
CREATELOGIN System Grants the ability to manage authentication using the WITH PASSWORD, VALID UNTIL, and LOGIN/NOLOGIN role options.
CREATEROLE System Grants the ability to create, modify, or delete non-admin roles.
DELETE Table, Sequence Grants the ability to delete objects at the table or sequence level.
DROP Database, Table, Sequence Grants the ability to drop objects at the database, table, or sequence level.
EXECUTE Function Grants the ability to execute functions.
EXTERNALCONNECTION System Grants the ability to connect to external systems such as object stores, key management systems, Kafka feeds, or external file systems. Often used in conjunction with the BACKUP, RESTORE, and CHANGEFEED privilege.
EXTERNALIOIMPLICITACCESS System Grants the ability to interact with external resources that require implicit access.
INSERT Table, Sequence Grants the ability to insert objects at the table or sequence level.
MODIFYCLUSTERSETTING System Grants the ability to modify cluster settings.
MODIFYSQLCLUSTERSETTING System Grants the ability to modify SQL cluster settings (cluster settings prefixed with sql.).
NOSQLLOGIN System Prevents roles from connecting to the SQL interface of a cluster.
RESTORE System, Database, Table Grants the ability to restore backups at the system, database, or table level.
SELECT Table, Sequence Grants the ability to run selection queries at the table or sequence level.
UPDATE Table, Sequence Grants the ability to run update statements at the table or sequence level.
USAGE Function, Schema, Sequence, Type Grants the ability to use functions, schemas, sequences, or user-defined types.
VIEWACTIVITY System Grants the ability to view other user's activity statistics of a cluster.
VIEWACTIVITYREDACTED System Grants the ability to view other user's activity statistics, but prevents the role from accessing the statement diagnostics bundle in the DB Console, and viewing some columns in introspection queries that contain data about the cluster.
VIEWCLUSTERMETADATA System Grants the ability to view range information, data distribution, store information, and Raft information.
VIEWCLUSTERSETTING System Grants the ability to view cluster settings and their values.
VIEWDEBUG System Grants the ability to view the Advanced Debug Page of the DB Console and work with the debugging and profiling endpoints.
VIEWJOB System Grants the ability to view jobs on the cluster.
VIEWSYSTEMTABLE System Grants read-only access (SELECT) on all tables in the system database, without granting the ability to modify the cluster. This privilege was introduced in v23.1.11.
ZONECONFIG Database, Table, Sequence Grants the ability to configure replication zones at the database, table, and sequence level.

Required privileges

  • To revoke privileges, user revoking privileges must have the GRANT privilege on the target database, schema, table, or user-defined type. In addition to the GRANT privilege, the user revoking privileges must have the privilege being revoked on the target object. For example, a user revoking the SELECT privilege on a table to another user must have the GRANT and SELECT privileges on that table.

  • To revoke role membership, the user revoking role membership must be a role admin (i.e., members with the WITH ADMIN OPTION) or a member of the admin role. To remove membership to the admin role, the user must have WITH ADMIN OPTION on the admin role.

Considerations

  • The root user cannot be revoked from the admin role.

Limitations

User/role management operations (such as GRANT and REVOKE) are schema changes. As such, they inherit the limitations of schema changes.

For example, schema changes wait for concurrent transactions using the same resources as the schema changes to complete. In the case of role memberships being modified inside a transaction, most transactions need access to the set of role memberships. Using the default settings, role modifications require schema leases to expire, which can take up to 5 minutes.

This means that long-running transactions elsewhere in the system can cause user/role management operations inside transactions to take several minutes to complete. This can have a cascading effect. When a user/role management operation inside a transaction takes a long time to complete, it can in turn block all user-initiated transactions being run by your application, since the user/role management operation in the transaction has to commit before any other transactions that access role memberships (i.e., most transactions) can make progress.

If you want user/role management operations to finish more quickly, and do not care whether concurrent transactions will immediately see the side effects of those operations, set the session variable allow_role_memberships_to_change_during_transaction to true.

When this session variable is enabled, any user/role management operations issued in the current session will only need to wait for the completion of statements in other sessions where allow_role_memberships_to_change_during_transaction is not enabled.

To accelerate user/role management operations across your entire application, you have the following options:

  1. Set the session variable in all sessions by passing it in the client connection string.
  2. Apply the allow_role_memberships_to_change_during_transaction setting globally to an entire cluster using the ALTER ROLE ALL statement:

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    ALTER ROLE ALL SET allow_role_memberships_to_change_during_transaction = true;
    

Examples

Setup

To follow along, run cockroach demo to start a temporary, in-memory cluster with the movr sample dataset preloaded:

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$ cockroach demo

Revoke privileges on databases

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CREATE USER max WITH PASSWORD 'roach';
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GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE movr TO max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON DATABASE movr;
  database_name | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | admin   | ALL
  movr          | max     | CREATE
  movr          | root    | ALL
(3 rows)
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REVOKE CREATE ON DATABASE movr FROM max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON DATABASE movr;
  database_name | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | admin   | ALL
  movr          | root    | ALL
(2 rows)
Note:

Any tables that previously inherited the database-level privileges retain the privileges.

Revoke privileges on specific tables in a database

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GRANT DELETE ON TABLE rides TO max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON TABLE rides;
  database_name | schema_name | table_name | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+-------------+------------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | public      | rides      | admin   | ALL
  movr          | public      | rides      | max     | DELETE
  movr          | public      | rides      | root    | ALL
(3 rows)
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REVOKE DELETE ON TABLE rides FROM max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON TABLE rides;
  database_name | schema_name | table_name | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+-------------+------------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | public      | rides      | admin   | ALL
  movr          | public      | rides      | root    | ALL
(2 rows)

Revoke privileges on all tables in a database or schema

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GRANT CREATE, SELECT, DELETE ON TABLE rides, users TO max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON TABLE movr.*;
  database_name | schema_name |         table_name         | grantee | privilege_type | is_grantable
----------------+-------------+----------------------------+---------+----------------+---------------
  movr          | public      | promo_codes                | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | promo_codes                | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | promo_codes                | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | rides                      | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | rides                      | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | rides                      | max     | CREATE         |      f
  movr          | public      | rides                      | max     | DELETE         |      f
  movr          | public      | rides                      | max     | SELECT         |      f
  movr          | public      | rides                      | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | user_promo_codes           | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | user_promo_codes           | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | user_promo_codes           | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | users                      | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | users                      | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | users                      | max     | CREATE         |      f
  movr          | public      | users                      | max     | DELETE         |      f
  movr          | public      | users                      | max     | SELECT         |      f
  movr          | public      | users                      | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicle_location_histories | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicle_location_histories | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicle_location_histories | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicles                   | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicles                   | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicles                   | root    | ALL            |      t
(24 rows)
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REVOKE DELETE ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA public FROM max;

This is equivalent to the following syntax:

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REVOKE DELETE ON movr.public.* FROM max;
  database_name | schema_name |         table_name         | grantee | privilege_type | is_grantable
----------------+-------------+----------------------------+---------+----------------+---------------
  movr          | public      | promo_codes                | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | promo_codes                | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | promo_codes                | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | rides                      | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | rides                      | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | rides                      | max     | CREATE         |      f
  movr          | public      | rides                      | max     | SELECT         |      f
  movr          | public      | rides                      | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | user_promo_codes           | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | user_promo_codes           | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | user_promo_codes           | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | users                      | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | users                      | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | users                      | max     | CREATE         |      f
  movr          | public      | users                      | max     | SELECT         |      f
  movr          | public      | users                      | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicle_location_histories | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicle_location_histories | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicle_location_histories | root    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicles                   | admin   | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicles                   | demo    | ALL            |      t
  movr          | public      | vehicles                   | root    | ALL            |      t
(22 rows)

Revoke system-level privileges on the entire cluster

System-level privileges live above the database level and apply to the entire cluster.

root and admin users have system-level privileges by default, and are capable of revoking it from other users and roles using the REVOKE statement.

For example, the following statement removes the ability to use the SET CLUSTER SETTING statement from the user maxroach by revoking the MODIFYCLUSTERSETTING system privilege:

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REVOKE SYSTEM MODIFYCLUSTERSETTING FROM maxroach;

Revoke privileges on schemas

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CREATE SCHEMA cockroach_labs;
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GRANT ALL ON SCHEMA cockroach_labs TO max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON SCHEMA cockroach_labs;
  database_name |  schema_name   | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+----------------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | cockroach_labs | admin   | ALL
  movr          | cockroach_labs | max     | ALL
  movr          | cockroach_labs | root    | ALL
(3 rows)
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REVOKE CREATE ON SCHEMA cockroach_labs FROM max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON SCHEMA cockroach_labs;
  database_name |  schema_name   | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+----------------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | cockroach_labs | admin   | ALL
  movr          | cockroach_labs | max     | GRANT
  movr          | cockroach_labs | max     | USAGE
  movr          | cockroach_labs | root    | ALL
(4 rows)

Revoke privileges on user-defined types

To revoke privileges on user-defined types, use the following statements.

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CREATE TYPE status AS ENUM ('available', 'unavailable');
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GRANT ALL ON TYPE status TO max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON TYPE status;
  database_name | schema_name | type_name | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | public      | status    | admin   | ALL
  movr          | public      | status    | max     | ALL
  movr          | public      | status    | public  | USAGE
  movr          | public      | status    | root    | ALL
(4 rows)
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REVOKE GRANT ON TYPE status FROM max;
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SHOW GRANTS ON TYPE status;
  database_name | schema_name | type_name | grantee | privilege_type
----------------+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------------
  movr          | public      | status    | admin   | ALL
  movr          | public      | status    | max     | USAGE
  movr          | public      | status    | public  | USAGE
  movr          | public      | status    | root    | ALL
(4 rows)

Revoke role membership

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CREATE ROLE developer WITH CREATEDB;
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CREATE USER abbey WITH PASSWORD 'lincoln';
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GRANT developer TO abbey;
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SHOW GRANTS ON ROLE developer;
  role_name | member | is_admin
------------+--------+-----------
  developer | abbey  |  false
(1 row)
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REVOKE developer FROM abbey;
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SHOW GRANTS ON ROLE developer;
  role_name | member | is_admin
------------+--------+-----------
(0 rows)

Revoke the admin option

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GRANT developer TO abbey WITH ADMIN OPTION;
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SHOW GRANTS ON ROLE developer;
  role_name | member | is_admin
------------+--------+-----------
  developer | abbey  |   true
(1 row)
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REVOKE ADMIN OPTION FOR developer FROM abbey;
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SHOW GRANTS ON ROLE developer;
  role_name | member | is_admin
------------+--------+-----------
  developer | abbey  |  false
(1 row)

See also


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