IMPORT

The IMPORT statement imports the following types of data into CockroachDB:

Considerations

  • IMPORT only works for creating new tables. For information on how to import into existing tables, see IMPORT INTO. Also, for instructions and working examples on how to migrate data from other databases, see the Migration Overview.
Note:

As of v21.2 IMPORT TABLE will be deprecated. To import data into a new table, use CREATE TABLE followed by IMPORT INTO. For an example, read Import into a new table from a CSV file.

Required privileges

Table privileges

The user must have the CREATE privileges on the target database.

Source privileges

The source file URL does not require the ADMIN role in the following scenarios:

  • S3 and GS using SPECIFIED (and not IMPLICIT) credentials. Azure is always SPECIFIED by default.
  • Userfile

The source file URL does require the ADMIN role in the following scenarios:

We recommend using cloud storage for bulk operations.

Synopsis

Import a table from CSV or Avro

IMPORT TABLE table_name CREATE USING file_location ( table_elem_list ) CSV AVRO DATA ( file_location , ) WITH kv_option_list

Import a database or table from dump file

IMPORT TABLE table_name FROM import_format file_location WITH kv_option_list

Parameters

For import from CSV or Avro

Parameter Description
table_name The name of the table you want to import/create.
table_elem_list The table schema you want to use.
CREATE USING file_location If not specifying the table schema inline via table_elem_list, this is the URL of a SQL file containing the table schema.
file_location The URL of a CSV file containing the table data. This can be a comma-separated list of URLs to CSV files or specified by a * wildcard character to include matching files under the specified path.
WITH kv_option_list Control your import's behavior with these options.

For import from dump file

Parameter Description
table_name The name of the table you want to import/create. Use this when the dump file contains a specific table. Leave out TABLE table_name FROM when the dump file contains an entire database.
import_format PGDUMP, MYSQLDUMP, or DELIMITED DATA
file_location The URL of a dump file you want to import.
WITH kv_option_list Control your import's behavior with these options.

Delimited data files

The DELIMITED DATA format can be used to import delimited data from any text file type, while ignoring characters that need to be escaped, like the following:

  • The file's delimiter (\t by default)
  • Double quotes (")
  • Newline (\n)
  • Carriage return (\r)

For examples showing how to use the DELIMITED DATA format, see the Examples section below.

Import options

You can control the IMPORT process's behavior using any of the following optional key-value pairs as a kv_option. To set multiple import options, use a comma-separated list (see examples).

Key
Context
Value
delimiter CSV DATA The unicode character that delimits columns in your rows. Default: ,.
comment CSV DATA The unicode character that identifies rows to skip.
strict_quotes CSV DATA Use if CSV import files have quotes ("") within rows to prevent multiple rows from being treated as single rows. Default: Off
nullif CSV DATA, DELIMITED DATA The string that should be converted to NULL.
skip CSV DATA, DELIMITED DATA The number of rows to be skipped while importing a file. Default: '0'.
decompress General The decompression codec to be used: gzip, bzip, auto, or none. Default: 'auto', which guesses based on file extension (.gz, .bz, .bz2). none disables decompression.
row_limit General New in v21.1: The number of rows to import. Useful for doing a test run of an import and finding errors quickly. For non-bundled formats, setting row_limit = 'n' will import the first n rows of a table. For bundled formats, this option will import the first n rows from each table in the dump file.
skip_foreign_keys PGDUMP, MYSQLDUMP Ignore foreign key constraints in the dump file's DDL. Default: Off. May be necessary to import a table with unsatisfied foreign key constraints from a full database dump.
max_row_size PGDUMP Override limit on line size. Default: 0.5MB. This setting may need to be tweaked if your Postgres dump file has extremely long lines, for example as part of a COPY statement.
ignore_unsupported_statements PGDUMP New in v21.1: Ignore SQL statements in the dump file that are unsupported by CockroachDB.
log_ignored_statements PGDUMP New in v21.1: Log unsupported statements when using ignore_unsupported_statements to a specified destination (i.e., cloud storage or userfile storage.
rows_terminated_by DELIMITED DATA The unicode character to indicate new lines in the input file. Default: \n
fields_terminated_by DELIMITED DATA The unicode character used to separate fields in each input line. Default: \t
fields_enclosed_by DELIMITED DATA The unicode character that encloses fields. Default: "
fields_escaped_by DELIMITED DATA The unicode character, when preceding one of the above DELIMITED DATA options, to be interpreted literally.
strict_validation AVRO DATA Rejects Avro records that do not have a one-to-one mapping between Avro fields to the target CockroachDB schema. By default, CockroachDB ignores unknown Avro fields and sets missing SQL fields to NULL. CockroachDB will also attempt to convert the Avro field to the CockroachDB data type; otherwise, it will report an error.
records_terminated_by AVRO DATA The unicode character to indicate new lines in the input binary or JSON file. This is not needed for Avro OCF.

Default: \n
data_as_binary_records AVRO DATA Use when importing a binary file containing Avro records. The schema is not included in the file, so you need to specify the schema with either the schema or schema_uri option.
data_as_json_records AVRO DATA Use when importing a JSON file containing Avro records. The schema is not included in the file, so you need to specify the schema with either the schema or schema_uri option.
schema AVRO DATA The schema of the Avro records included in the binary or JSON file. This is not needed for Avro OCF.
schema_uri AVRO DATA The URI of the file containing the schema of the Avro records include in the binary or JSON file. This is not needed for Avro OCF.
DETACHED N/A New in v21.1: When an import runs in DETACHED mode, it will execute asynchronously and the job ID will be returned immediately without waiting for the job to finish. Note that with DETACHED specified, further job information and the job completion status will not be returned. For more on the differences between the returned job data, see the example below. To check on the job status, use the SHOW JOBS statement.

To run an import within a transaction, use the DETACHED option.

For examples showing how to use these options, see the Examples section below.

For instructions and working examples showing how to migrate data from other databases and formats, see the Migration Overview.

Requirements

Prerequisites

Before using IMPORT, you should have:

  • The schema of the table you want to import.
  • The data you want to import, preferably hosted on cloud storage. This location must be equally accessible to all nodes using the same import file location. This is necessary because the IMPORT statement is issued once by the client, but is executed concurrently across all nodes of the cluster. For more information, see the Import file location section below.

For more information on details to consider when running an IMPORT, see Considerations.

Import targets

Note:

As of v21.2 IMPORT TABLE will be deprecated. To import data into a new table, use CREATE TABLE followed by IMPORT INTO. For an example, read Import into a new table from a CSV file.

To use IMPORT in v21.1 and prior, imported tables must not exist and must be created in the IMPORT statement. If the table you want to import already exists, you must drop it with DROP TABLE or use IMPORT INTO.

You can specify the target database in the table name in the IMPORT statement. If it's not specified there, the active database in the SQL session is used.

Create table

Your IMPORT statement must reference a CREATE TABLE statement representing the schema of the data you want to import. You have several options:

We also recommend specifying all secondary indexes you want to use in the CREATE TABLE statement. It is possible to add secondary indexes later, but it is significantly faster to specify them during import.

Note:

IMPORT supports computed columns for Avro and Postgres dump files only. To import CSV data to a table with a computed column or DEFAULT expression, use IMPORT INTO.

Note:

By default, the Postgres and MySQL import formats support foreign keys. However, the most common dependency issues during import are caused by unsatisfied foreign key relationships that cause errors like pq: there is no unique constraint matching given keys for referenced table tablename. You can avoid these issues by adding the skip_foreign_keys option to your IMPORT statement as needed. Ignoring foreign constraints will also speed up data import.

Available storage

Each node in the cluster is assigned an equal part of the imported data, and so must have enough temp space to store it. In addition, data is persisted as a normal table, and so there must also be enough space to hold the final, replicated data. The node's first-listed/default store directory must have enough available storage to hold its portion of the data.

On cockroach start, if you set --max-disk-temp-storage, it must also be greater than the portion of the data a node will store in temp space.

Import file location

CockroachDB uses the URL provided to construct a secure API call to the service you specify. The URL structure depends on the type of file storage you are using. For more information, see the following:

Table users and privileges

Imported tables are treated as new tables, so you must GRANT privileges to them.

Performance

  • All nodes are used during the import job, which means all nodes' CPU and RAM will be partially consumed by the IMPORT task in addition to serving normal traffic.
  • To improve performance, import at least as many files as you have nodes (i.e., there is at least one file for each node to import) to increase parallelism.
  • To further improve performance, order the data in the imported files by primary key and ensure the primary keys do not overlap between files.

Viewing and controlling import jobs

After CockroachDB initiates an import, you can view its progress with SHOW JOBS and on the Jobs page of the DB Console, and you can control it with PAUSE JOB, RESUME JOB, and CANCEL JOB.

Note:

If initiated correctly, the statement returns when the import is finished or if it encounters an error. In some cases, the import can continue after an error has been returned (the error message will tell you that the import has resumed in the background).

When resumed, paused imports now continue from their internally recorded progress instead of starting over.

Examples

The following provide connection examples to cloud storage providers. For more information on connecting to different storage options, read Use Cloud Storage for Bulk Operations.

Note:

As of v21.2 IMPORT TABLE will be deprecated. To import data into a new table, use CREATE TABLE followed by IMPORT INTO. For an example, read Import into a new table from a CSV file.

Note:

The examples in this section use the default AUTH=specified parameter. For more detail on how to use implicit authentication with Amazon S3 buckets, read Use Cloud Storage for Bulk Operations — Authentication.

Import a table from a CSV file

To specify the table schema in-line:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
;

To use a file to specify the table schema:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers
CREATE USING 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers-create-table.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}'
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS_KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
;
Note:

The column order in your schema must match the column order in the file being imported.

Import a table from multiple CSV files

Using a comma-separated list

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA (
    's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}',
    's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers2.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}',
    's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers3.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}',
    's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers4.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}',
);

Using a wildcard

You can specify file patterns to match instead of explicitly listing every file. Paths are matched using the * wildcard character to include matching files directly under the specified path. A wildcard can be used to include:

  • All files in a given directory (e.g.,s3://bucket-name/path/to/data/*)
  • All files in a given directory that end with a given string (e.g., s3://bucket-name/files/*.csv)
  • All files in a given directory that start with a given string (e.g., s3://bucket-name/files/data*)
  • All files in a given directory that start and end with a given string (e.g., s3://bucket-name/files/data*.csv)

These only match files directly under the specified path and do not descend into additional directories recursively.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA (
    's3://{BUCKET NAME}/*?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}'
);

Import a table from a TSV file

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.tsv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH
    delimiter = e'\t'
;

Skip commented lines

The comment option determines which Unicode character marks the rows in the data to be skipped.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH
    comment = '#'
;

Skip first n lines

The skip option determines the number of header rows to skip when importing a file.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH
    skip = '2'
;

Import a limited number of rows

New in v21.1: The row_limit option determines the number of rows to import. For non-bundled formats, setting row_limit = 'n' will import the first n rows of a table. For bundled formats, this option will import the first n rows from each table in the dump file. It is useful for finding errors quickly before executing a more time- and resource-consuming import. Imported tables can be inspected for their schema and data, but must be dropped before running the actual import.

The examples below use CSV data, but row_limit is also an option for Avro files, delimited data files, Postgres dump files, and MySQL dump files.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH
    row_limit = '10'
;

Use blank characters as NULL

The nullif option defines which string should be converted to NULL.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH
    nullif = ''
;

Import a compressed CSV file

CockroachDB chooses the decompression codec based on the filename (the common extensions .gz or .bz2 and .bz) and uses the codec to decompress the file during import.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv.gz}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
;

Optionally, you can use the decompress option to specify the codec to be used for decompressing the file during import:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv.gz}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH
    decompress = 'gzip'
;

Import a Postgres database dump

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> IMPORT PGDUMP 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}' WITH ignore_unsupported_statements;

For the command above to succeed, you need to have created the dump file with specific flags to pg_dump, and starting in v21.1 use the WITH ignore_unsupported_statements clause. For more information, see Migrate from Postgres.

Import a table from a Postgres database dump

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> IMPORT TABLE employees FROM PGDUMP 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees-full.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}' WITH skip_foreign_keys WITH ignore_unsupported_statements;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

For the command above to succeed, you need to have created the dump file with specific flags to pg_dump. For more information, see Migrate from Postgres.

Import a CockroachDB dump file

Cockroach dump files can be imported using the IMPORT PGDUMP statement.

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> IMPORT PGDUMP 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees-full.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}';

For more information, see SQL Dump (Export).

Import a MySQL database dump

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> IMPORT MYSQLDUMP 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees-full.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}';

For more detailed information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Import a table from a MySQL database dump

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> IMPORT TABLE employees FROM MYSQLDUMP 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees-full.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}' WITH skip_foreign_keys;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

For more detailed information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Import a delimited data file

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> IMPORT DELIMITED DATA 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees-full.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}'
  WITH
    fields_terminated_by='|',
    fields_enclosed_by='"',
    fields_escaped_by='"';
Note:

If you want to escape special symbols, use fields_escaped_by.

Import a table from a delimited data file

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> IMPORT TABLE employees
    FROM DELIMITED DATA 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}'
    WITH
      skip_foreign_keys;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

Import a table from an Avro file

Avro OCF data, JSON records, or binary records can be imported. The following are examples of importing Avro OCF data.

To specify the table schema in-line:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
AVRO DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.avro}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
;

To use a file to specify the table schema:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers
CREATE USING 's3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers-create-table.sql}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}'
AVRO DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.avro}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
;

For more information about importing data from Avro, including examples, see Migrate from Avro.

Run an import within a transaction

New in v21.1: The DETACHED option allows an import to be run asynchronously, returning the job ID immediately once initiated. You can run imports within transactions by specifying the DETACHED option.

The following transactions use CSV data as an example. To use the DETACHED option with IMPORT in a transaction:

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> BEGIN;

CREATE DATABASE newdb;

SET DATABASE = newdb;

IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('s3://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID={ACCESS KEY}&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY={SECRET ACCESS KEY}')
WITH DETACHED;

COMMIT;

The job ID is returned immediately without waiting for the job to finish:

        job_id
----------------------
  592786066399264769
(1 row)

Without the DETACHED option, IMPORT will block the SQL connection until the job completes. Once finished, the job status and more detailed job data is returned:

job_id             |  status   | fraction_completed | rows | index_entries | bytes
---------------------+-----------+--------------------+------+---------------+--------
652471804772712449 | succeeded |                  1 |   50 |             0 |  4911
(1 row)

Import a table from a CSV file

To specify the table schema in-line:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
;

To use a file to specify the table schema:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers
CREATE USING 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-create-table.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}'
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
;
Note:

The column order in your schema must match the column order in the file being imported.

Import a table from multiple CSV files

Using a comma-separated list

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA (
    'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}',
    'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data2.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}',
    'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data3.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}',
    'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data4.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}',
    'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data5.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}',    
);

Using a wildcard

You can specify file patterns to match instead of explicitly listing every file. Paths are matched using the * wildcard character to include matching files directly under the specified path. A wildcard can be used to include:

  • All files in a given directory (e.g.,azure://container-name/path/to/data/*)
  • All files in a given directory that end with a given string (e.g., azure://container-name/files/*.csv)
  • All files in a given directory that start with a given string (e.g., azure://container-name/files/data*)
  • All files in a given directory that start and end with a given string (e.g., azure://container-name/files/data*.csv)

These only match files directly under the specified path and do not descend into additional directories recursively.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA (
    'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data*}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}'  
);

Import a table from a TSV file

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.tsv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    delimiter = e'\t'
;

Skip commented lines

The comment option determines which Unicode character marks the rows in the data to be skipped.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    comment = '#'
;

Skip first n lines

The skip option determines the number of header rows to skip when importing a file.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    skip = '2'
;

Import a limited number of rows

New in v21.1: The row_limit option determines the number of rows to import. For non-bundled formats, setting row_limit = 'n' will import the first n rows of a table. For bundled formats, this option will import the first n rows from each table in the dump file. It is useful for finding errors quickly before executing a more time- and resource-consuming import. Imported tables can be inspected for their schema and data, but must be dropped before running the actual import.

The examples below use CSV data, but row_limit is also an option for Avro files, delimited data files, Postgres dump files, and MySQL dump files.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    row_limit = '10'
;

Use blank characters as NULL

The nullif option defines which string should be converted to NULL.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    nullif = ''
;

Import a compressed CSV file

CockroachDB chooses the decompression codec based on the filename (the common extensions .gz or .bz2 and .bz) and uses the codec to decompress the file during import.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv.gz}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
;

Optionally, you can use the decompress option to specify the codec to be used for decompressing the file during import:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv.gz}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    decompress = 'gzip'
;

Import a Postgres database dump

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> IMPORT PGDUMP 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}' WITH ignore_unsupported_statements;

For the commands above to succeed, you need to have created the dump file with specific flags to pg_dump, and starting in v21.1 use the WITH ignore_unsupported_statements clause. For more information, see Migrate from Postgres.

Import a table from a Postgres database dump

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> IMPORT TABLE employees FROM PGDUMP 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}' WITH skip_foreign_keys WITH ignore_unsupported_statements;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

For the command above to succeed, you need to have created the dump file with specific flags to pg_dump. For more information, see Migrate from Postgres.

Import a CockroachDB dump file

Cockroach dump files can be imported using the IMPORT PGDUMP statement.

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> IMPORT PGDUMP 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}';

For more information, see SQL Dump (Export).

Import a MySQL database dump

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> IMPORT MYSQLDUMP 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}';

For more detailed information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Import a table from a MySQL database dump

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> IMPORT TABLE employees FROM MYSQLDUMP 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}' WITH skip_foreign_keys;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

For more detailed information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Import a delimited data file

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> IMPORT DELIMITED DATA 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}'
  WITH
    fields_terminated_by='|',
    fields_enclosed_by='"',
    fields_escaped_by='"';
Note:

If you want to escape special symbols, use fields_escaped_by.

Import a table from a delimited data file

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE employees
    FROM DELIMITED DATA 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{employees.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}'
    WITH
      skip_foreign_keys;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

Import a table from an Avro file

Avro OCF data, JSON records, or binary records can be imported. The following are examples of importing Avro OCF data.

To specify the table schema in-line:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
AVRO DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-date.avro}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
;

To use a file to specify the table schema:

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers
CREATE USING 'azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-create-table.sql}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}'
AVRO DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.avro}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
;

For more information about importing data from Avro, including examples, see Migrate from Avro.

Run an import within a transaction

New in v21.1: The DETACHED option allows an import to be run asynchronously, returning the job ID immediately once initiated. You can run imports within transactions by specifying the DETACHED option.

The following transactions use CSV data as an example. To use the DETACHED option with IMPORT in a transaction:

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> BEGIN;

CREATE DATABASE newdb;

SET DATABASE = newdb;

IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('azure://{CONTAINER NAME}/{customer-import-data.csv}?AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME={ACCOUNT NAME}&AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH DETACHED;

COMMIT;

The job ID is returned immediately without waiting for the job to finish:

        job_id
----------------------
  592786066399264769
(1 row)

Without the DETACHED option, IMPORT will block the SQL connection until the job completes. Once finished, the job status and more detailed job data is returned:

job_id             |  status   | fraction_completed | rows | index_entries | bytes
---------------------+-----------+--------------------+------+---------------+--------
652471804772712449 | succeeded |                  1 |   50 |             0 |  4911
(1 row)
Note:

The examples in this section use the AUTH=specified parameter, which will be the default behavior in v21.2 and beyond for connecting to Google Cloud Storage. For more detail on how to pass your Google Cloud Storage credentials with this parameter, or, how to use implicit authentication, read Use Cloud Storage for Bulk Operations — Authentication.

Import a table from a CSV file

To specify the table schema in-line:

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
;

To use a file to specify the table schema:

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers
CREATE USING 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers-create-table.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}'
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
;
Note:

The column order in your schema must match the column order in the file being imported.

Import a table from multiple CSV files

Using a comma-separated list

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA (
    'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}',
    'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers2.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}',
    'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers3.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}',
    'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers4.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}',
);

Using a wildcard

You can specify file patterns to match instead of explicitly listing every file. Paths are matched using the * wildcard character to include matching files directly under the specified path. A wildcard can be used to include:

  • All files in a given directory (e.g.,gs://bucket-name/path/to/data/*)
  • All files in a given directory that end with a given string (e.g., gs://bucket-name/files/*.csv)
  • All files in a given directory that start with a given string (e.g., gs://bucket-name/files/data*)
  • All files in a given directory that start and end with a given string (e.g., gs://bucket-name/files/data*.csv)

These only match files directly under the specified path and do not descend into additional directories recursively.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA (
    'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/*?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}'
);

Import a table from a TSV file

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.tsv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    delimiter = e'\t'
;

Skip commented lines

The comment option determines which Unicode character marks the rows in the data to be skipped.

Google Cloud:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    comment = '#'
;

Skip first n lines

The skip option determines the number of header rows to skip when importing a file.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    skip = '2'
;

Import a limited number of rows

New in v21.1: The row_limit option determines the number of rows to import. For non-bundled formats, setting row_limit = 'n' will import the first n rows of a table. For bundled formats, this option will import the first n rows from each table in the dump file. It is useful for finding errors quickly before executing a more time- and resource-consuming import. Imported tables can be inspected for their schema and data, but must be dropped before running the actual import.

The examples below use CSV data, but row_limit is also an option for Avro files, delimited data files, Postgres dump files, and MySQL dump files.

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    row_limit = '10'
;

Use blank characters as NULL

The nullif option defines which string should be converted to NULL.

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    nullif = ''
;

Import a compressed CSV file

CockroachDB chooses the decompression codec based on the filename (the common extensions .gz or .bz2 and .bz) and uses the codec to decompress the file during import.

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv.gz}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
;

Optionally, you can use the decompress option to specify the codec to be used for decompressing the file during import:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH
    decompress = 'gzip'
;

Import a Postgres database dump

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT PGDUMP 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}' WITH ignore_unsupported_statements;

For the commands above to succeed, you need to have created the dump file with specific flags to pg_dump, and starting in v21.1 use the WITH ignore_unsupported_statements clause. For more information, see Migrate from Postgres.

Import a table from a Postgres database dump

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE employees FROM PGDUMP 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}' WITH skip_foreign_keys WITH ignore_unsupported_statements;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

For the command above to succeed, you need to have created the dump file with specific flags to pg_dump. For more information, see Migrate from Postgres.

Import a CockroachDB dump file

Cockroach dump files can be imported using the IMPORT PGDUMP statement.

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> IMPORT PGDUMP 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}';

For more information, see SQL Dump (Export).

Import a MySQL database dump

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> IMPORT MYSQLDUMP 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}';

For more detailed information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Import a table from a MySQL database dump

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE employees FROM MYSQLDUMP 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}' WITH skip_foreign_keys;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

For more detailed information about importing data from MySQL, see Migrate from MySQL.

Import a delimited data file

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT DELIMITED DATA 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}'
  WITH
    fields_terminated_by='|',
    fields_enclosed_by='"',
    fields_escaped_by='"';
Note:

If you want to escape special symbols, use fields_escaped_by.

Import a table from a delimited data file

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE employees
    FROM DELIMITED DATA 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{employees.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}'
    WITH
      skip_foreign_keys;

If the table schema specifies foreign keys into tables that do not exist yet, the WITH skip_foreign_keys shown may be needed. For more information, see the list of import options.

Import a table from an Avro file

Avro OCF data, JSON records, or binary records can be imported. The following are examples of importing Avro OCF data.

To specify the table schema in-line:

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
AVRO DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.avro}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
;

To use a file to specify the table schema:

icon/buttons/copy
> IMPORT TABLE customers
CREATE USING 'gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers-create-table.sql}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}'
AVRO DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.avro}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
;

For more information about importing data from Avro, including examples, see Migrate from Avro.

Run an import within a transaction

New in v21.1: The DETACHED option allows an import to be run asynchronously, returning the job ID immediately once initiated. You can run imports within transactions by specifying the DETACHED option.

The following transactions use CSV data as an example. To use the DETACHED option with IMPORT in a transaction:

icon/buttons/copy
> BEGIN;

CREATE DATABASE newdb;

SET DATABASE = newdb;

IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name TEXT,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('gs://{BUCKET NAME}/{customers.csv}?AUTH=specified&CREDENTIALS={ENCODED KEY}')
WITH DETACHED;

COMMIT;

The job ID is returned immediately without waiting for the job to finish:

        job_id
----------------------
  592786066399264769
(1 row)

Without the DETACHED option, IMPORT will block the SQL connection until the job completes. Once finished, the job status and more detailed job data is returned:

job_id             |  status   | fraction_completed | rows | index_entries | bytes
---------------------+-----------+--------------------+------+---------------+--------
652471804772712449 | succeeded |                  1 |   50 |             0 |  4911
(1 row)

Import a table from a local file

You can import a file from nodelocal, which is the external IO directory on a node's local file system. To import from nodelocal, a nodeID is required and the data files will be in the extern directory of the specified node.

Note:

The file system backup location on the NFS drive is relative to the path specified by the --external-io-dir flag set while starting the node. If the flag is set to disabled, then imports from local directories and NFS drives are disabled. Use self if you do not want to specify a nodeID, and the individual data files will be in the extern directories of arbitrary nodes; however, to work correctly, each node must have the --external-io-dir flag point to the same NFS mount or other network-backed, shared storage.

If a nodeID is provided, the data files to import will be in the extern directory of the specified node:

cd /tmp/node2 && ls
000355.log              cockroach-temp700212211
000357.log              cockroach.advertise-addr
000359.sst              cockroach.advertise-sql-addr
COCKROACHDB_VERSION     cockroach.http-addr
CURRENT                     cockroach.listen-addr
IDENTITY                    cockroach.sql-addr
LOCK                        extern
MANIFEST-000010         logs
OPTIONS-000005          temp-dirs-record.txt
auxiliary
cd /tmp/node2/extern && ls
customers.csv

Then, specify which node to access by including the nodeID in the IMPORT statement:

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> IMPORT TABLE customers (
        id UUID PRIMARY KEY,
        name STRING,
        INDEX name_idx (name)
)
CSV DATA ('nodelocal://2/customers.csv')
;

You can also use the cockroach nodelocal upload command to upload a file to the external IO directory on a node's (the gateway node, by default) local file system.

Known limitation

IMPORT can sometimes fail with a "context canceled" error, or can restart itself many times without ever finishing. If this is happening, it is likely due to a high amount of disk contention. This can be mitigated by setting the kv.bulk_io_write.max_rate cluster setting to a value below your max disk write speed. For example, to set it to 10MB/s, execute:

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> SET CLUSTER SETTING kv.bulk_io_write.max_rate = '10MB';

See also

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