IMPORT INTO statement imports CSV or Avro data into an existing table.
IMPORT INTO appends new rows onto the table.
IMPORT INTOonly works for existing tables. For information on how to import data into new tables, see
IMPORT INTOcannot be used within a transaction or during a rolling upgrade.
IMPORT INTOinvalidates all foreign keys on the target table. To validate the foreign key(s), use the
IMPORT INTOcannot be used to insert data into a column for an existing row. To do this, use
Optimize your applications by following our Import Performance Best Practices.
Only members of the
admin role can run
IMPORT INTO. By default, the
root user belongs to the
While importing into an existing table, the table is taken offline.
||The name of the table you want to import into.|
||The table columns you want to import.
Note: Currently, target columns are not enforced.
||The URL of a CSV or Avro file containing the table data. This can be a comma-separated list of URLs. For an example, see Import into an existing table from multiple CSV files below.|
||Control your import's behavior with CSV import options or Avro import options.|
Import file URLs
URLs for the files you want to import must use the format shown below. For examples, see Example file URLs.
||N/A (see Example file URLs||
|Google Cloud 2||
|S3-compatible services 6||
If your environment requires an HTTP or HTTPS proxy server for outgoing connections, you can set the standard
HTTPS_PROXY environment variables when starting CockroachDB.
New in v20.1: If you cannot run a full proxy, you can disable external HTTP(S) access (as well as custom HTTP(S) endpoints) when performing bulk operations (e.g.,
RESTORE, etc.) by using the
--external-io-disable-http flag. You can also disable the use of implicit credentials when accessing external cloud storage services for various bulk operations by using the
1 If the
AUTHparameter is not provided, AWS connections default to
specifiedand the access keys must be provided in the URI parameters. If the
implicit, the access keys can be omitted and the credentials will be loaded from the environment.
2 If the
AUTHparameter is not specified, the
cloudstorage.gs.default.keycluster setting will be used if it is non-empty, otherwise the
implicitbehavior is used. If the
implicit, all GCS connections use Google's default authentication strategy. If the
cloudstorage.gs.default.keycluster setting must be set to the contents of a service account file which will be used during authentication. If the
specified, GCS connections are authenticated on a per-statement basis, which allows the JSON key object to be sent in the
CREDENTIALSparameter. The JSON key object should be base64-encoded (using the standard encoding in RFC 4648).
3 You can create your own HTTP server with Caddy or nginx. A custom root CA can be appended to the system's default CAs by setting the
cloudstorage.http.custom_cacluster setting, which will be used when verifying certificates from HTTPS URLs.
4 The file system backup location on the NFS drive is relative to the path specified by the
--external-io-dirflag set while starting the node. If the flag is set to
disabled, then imports from local directories and NFS drives are disabled.
5 New in v20.1: Using a
nodeIDis required and the data files will be in the
externdirectory of the specified node. In most cases (including single-node clusters), using
nodelocal://1/<path>is sufficient. Use
selfif you do not want to specify a
nodeID, and the individual data files will be in the
externdirectories of arbitrary nodes; however, to work correctly, each node must have the
--external-io-dirflag point to the same NFS mount or other network-backed, shared storage.
6 A custom root CA can be appended to the system's default CAs by setting the
cloudstorage.http.custom_cacluster setting, which will be used when verifying certificates from an S3-compatible service.
AWS_REGIONparameter is optional since it is not a required parameter for most S3-compatible services. Specify the parameter only if your S3-compatible service requires it.
Example file URLs
CSV import options
You can control the
IMPORT process's behavior using any of the following key-value pairs as a
<option> [= <value>].
||The unicode character that delimits columns in your rows.
|To use tab-delimited values:
||The unicode character that identifies rows to skip.||
||The string that should be converted to NULL.||To use empty columns as NULL:
||The number of rows to be skipped while importing a file.
|To import CSV files with column headers:
||The decompression codec to be used:
For examples showing how to use these options, see the
IMPORT - Examples section.
For instructions and working examples showing how to migrate data from other databases and formats, see the Migration Overview. For information on how to import data into new tables, see
Avro import options
||Rejects Avro records that do not have a one-to-one mapping between Avro fields to the target CockroachDB schema. By default, CockroachDB ignores unknown Avro fields and sets missing SQL fields to
||The unicode character to indicate new lines in the input binary or JSON file. This is not needed for Avro OCF.
|To use tab-terminated records:
||Use when importing a binary file containing Avro records. The schema is not included in the file, so you need to specify the schema with either the
||Use when importing a JSON file containing Avro records. The schema is not included in the file, so you need to specify the schema with either the
||The schema of the Avro records included in the binary or JSON file. This is not needed for Avro OCF.||See
||The URI of the file containing the schema of the Avro records include in the binary or JSON file. This is not needed for Avro OCF.||See
IMPORT INTO, you should have:
- An existing table to import into (use
- The CSV or Avro data you want to import, preferably hosted on cloud storage. This location must be equally accessible to all nodes using the same import file location. This is necessary because the
IMPORT INTOstatement is issued once by the client, but is executed concurrently across all nodes of the cluster. For more information, see the Import file location section below.
Column values cannot be generated by
DEFAULT when importing; an import must include a value for every column specified in the
IMPORT INTO statement. To use
DEFAULT values, your file must contain values for the column upon import, or you can add the column or alter the column after the table has been imported.
Each node in the cluster is assigned an equal part of the imported data, and so must have enough temp space to store it. In addition, data is persisted as a normal table, and so there must also be enough space to hold the final, replicated data. The node's first-listed/default
store directory must have enough available storage to hold its portion of the data.
cockroach start, if you set
--max-disk-temp-storage, it must also be greater than the portion of the data a node will store in temp space.
Import file location
We strongly recommend using cloud/remote storage (Amazon S3, Google Cloud Platform, etc.) for the data you want to import, but local files are supported as well.
To import a local file, you have the following options:
Option 1. Run a local file server to make the file accessible from all nodes.
Option 2. Make the file accessible from a local node's store. You can do this by using
cockroach nodelocal uploador by manually placing the file in the
- Create an
externdirectory on a node's store. The pathname will differ depending on the
--storeflag passed to
cockroach start(if any), but will look something like
- Copy the file to a node's
- Assuming the file is called
data.sqland you uploaded it to node 1, you can access it in your
IMPORTstatement using the following import file URL:
- Create an
All nodes are used during the import job, which means all nodes' CPU and RAM will be partially consumed by the
IMPORT task in addition to serving normal traffic.
Viewing and controlling import jobs
After CockroachDB successfully initiates an import into an existing table, it registers the import as a job, which you can view with
After the import has been initiated, you can control it with
RESUME JOB, and
If initiated correctly, the statement returns when the import is finished or if it encounters an error. In some cases, the import can continue after an error has been returned (the error message will tell you that the import has resumed in background).
Pausing and then resuming an
IMPORT INTO job will cause it to restart from the beginning.
Import into an existing table from a CSV file
> IMPORT INTO customers (id, name) CSV DATA ( 's3://acme-co/customers.csv?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[placeholder]&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[placeholder]&AWS_SESSION_TOKEN=[placeholder]' );
> IMPORT INTO customers (id, name) CSV DATA ( 'azure://acme-co/customer-import-data.csv?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co' );
> IMPORT INTO customers (id, name) CSV DATA ( 'gs://acme-co/customers.csv' );
The column order in your statement must match the column order in the CSV being imported, regardless of the order in the existing table's schema.
Import into an existing table from multiple CSV files
> IMPORT INTO customers (id, name) CSV DATA ( 's3://acme-co/customers.csv?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[placeholder]&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[placeholder]', 's3://acme-co/customers2.csv?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[placeholder]&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[placeholder', 's3://acme-co/customers3.csv?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[placeholder]&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[placeholder]', 's3://acme-co/customers4.csv?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[placeholder]&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[placeholder]', );
> IMPORT INTO customers (id, name) CSV DATA ( 'azure://acme-co/customer-import-data1.1.csv?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co', 'azure://acme-co/customer-import-data1.2.csv?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co', 'azure://acme-co/customer-import-data1.3.csv?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co', 'azure://acme-co/customer-import-data1.4.csv?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co', 'azure://acme-co/customer-import-data1.5.csv?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co', );
> IMPORT INTO customers (id, name) CSV DATA ( 'gs://acme-co/customers.csv', 'gs://acme-co/customers2.csv', 'gs://acme-co/customers3.csv', 'gs://acme-co/customers4.csv', );
Import into an existing table from an Avro file
New in v20.1: Avro OCF data, JSON records, or binary records can be imported. The following are examples of importing Avro OCF data.
To specify the table schema in-line:
> IMPORT INTO customers AVRO DATA ( 's3://acme-co/customers.avro?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[placeholder]&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[placeholder]&AWS_SESSION_TOKEN=[placeholder]' );
> IMPORT INTO customers AVRO DATA ( 'azure://acme-co/customers.avro?AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY=hash&AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME=acme-co' );
> IMPORT INTO customers AVRO DATA ( 'gs://acme-co/customers.avro' );
For more detailed information about importing data from Avro and examples, see Migrate from Avro.
- While importing into an existing table, the table is taken offline.
- After importing into an existing table, constraints will be un-validated and need to be re-validated.
- Imported rows must not conflict with existing rows in the table or any unique secondary indexes.
IMPORT INTOworks for only a single existing table, and the table must not be interleaved.
IMPORT INTOcannot be used within a transaction.
IMPORT INTOcan sometimes fail with a "context canceled" error, or can restart itself many times without ever finishing. If this is happening, it is likely due to a high amount of disk contention. This can be mitigated by setting the
kv.bulk_io_write.max_ratecluster setting to a value below your max disk write speed. For example, to set it to 10MB/s, execute:
> SET CLUSTER SETTING kv.bulk_io_write.max_rate = '10MB';
IMPORT INTOcannot be used on a table with a
DEFAULTexpression for any of its columns.