Note:
Cockroach Labs supports the current stable release and two releases prior. Therefore, this version will no longer be supported after the Spring 2019 release.

CockroachDB supports the following SQL functions and operators.

Tip:
In the built-in SQL shell, use \hf [function] to get inline help about a specific function.

Built-in Functions

Array Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
array_append(array: bool[], elem: bool) → bool[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: bytes[], elem: bytes) → bytes[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: date[], elem: date) → date[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: decimal[], elem: decimal) → decimal[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: float[], elem: float) → float[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: int[], elem: int) → int[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: interval[], elem: interval) → interval[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: string[], elem: string) → string[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: timestamp[], elem: timestamp) → timestamp[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: timestamptz[], elem: timestamptz) → timestamptz[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: uuid[], elem: uuid) → uuid[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_append(array: oid[], elem: oid) → oid[]

Appends elem to array, returning the result.

array_cat(left: bool[], right: bool[]) → bool[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: bytes[], right: bytes[]) → bytes[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: date[], right: date[]) → date[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: decimal[], right: decimal[]) → decimal[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: float[], right: float[]) → float[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: int[], right: int[]) → int[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: interval[], right: interval[]) → interval[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: string[], right: string[]) → string[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: timestamp[], right: timestamp[]) → timestamp[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: timestamptz[], right: timestamptz[]) → timestamptz[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: uuid[], right: uuid[]) → uuid[]

Appends two arrays.

array_cat(left: oid[], right: oid[]) → oid[]

Appends two arrays.

array_length(input: anyelement[], array_dimension: int) → int

Calculates the length of input on the provided array_dimension. However, because CockroachDB doesn’t yet support multi-dimensional arrays, the only supported array_dimension is 1.

array_lower(input: anyelement[], array_dimension: int) → int

Calculates the minimum value of input on the provided array_dimension. However, because CockroachDB doesn’t yet support multi-dimensional arrays, the only supported array_dimension is 1.

array_position(array: bool[], elem: bool) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: bytes[], elem: bytes) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: date[], elem: date) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: decimal[], elem: decimal) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: float[], elem: float) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: int[], elem: int) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: interval[], elem: interval) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: string[], elem: string) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: timestamp[], elem: timestamp) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: timestamptz[], elem: timestamptz) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: uuid[], elem: uuid) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_position(array: oid[], elem: oid) → int

Return the index of the first occurrence of elem in array.

array_positions(array: bool[], elem: bool) → bool[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: bytes[], elem: bytes) → bytes[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: date[], elem: date) → date[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: decimal[], elem: decimal) → decimal[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: float[], elem: float) → float[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: int[], elem: int) → int[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: interval[], elem: interval) → interval[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: string[], elem: string) → string[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: timestamp[], elem: timestamp) → timestamp[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: timestamptz[], elem: timestamptz) → timestamptz[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: uuid[], elem: uuid) → uuid[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_positions(array: oid[], elem: oid) → oid[]

Returns and array of indexes of all occurrences of elem in array.

array_prepend(elem: bool, array: bool[]) → bool[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: bytes, array: bytes[]) → bytes[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: date, array: date[]) → date[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: decimal, array: decimal[]) → decimal[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: float, array: float[]) → float[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: int, array: int[]) → int[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: interval, array: interval[]) → interval[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: string, array: string[]) → string[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: timestamp, array: timestamp[]) → timestamp[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: timestamptz, array: timestamptz[]) → timestamptz[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: uuid, array: uuid[]) → uuid[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_prepend(elem: oid, array: oid[]) → oid[]

Prepends elem to array, returning the result.

array_remove(array: bool[], elem: bool) → bool[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: bytes[], elem: bytes) → bytes[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: date[], elem: date) → date[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: decimal[], elem: decimal) → decimal[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: float[], elem: float) → float[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: int[], elem: int) → int[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: interval[], elem: interval) → interval[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: string[], elem: string) → string[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: timestamp[], elem: timestamp) → timestamp[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: timestamptz[], elem: timestamptz) → timestamptz[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: uuid[], elem: uuid) → uuid[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_remove(array: oid[], elem: oid) → oid[]

Remove from array all elements equal to elem.

array_replace(array: bool[], toreplace: bool, replacewith: bool) → bool[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: bytes[], toreplace: bytes, replacewith: bytes) → bytes[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: date[], toreplace: date, replacewith: date) → date[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: decimal[], toreplace: decimal, replacewith: decimal) → decimal[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: float[], toreplace: float, replacewith: float) → float[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: int[], toreplace: int, replacewith: int) → int[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: interval[], toreplace: interval, replacewith: interval) → interval[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: string[], toreplace: string, replacewith: string) → string[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: timestamp[], toreplace: timestamp, replacewith: timestamp) → timestamp[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: timestamptz[], toreplace: timestamptz, replacewith: timestamptz) → timestamptz[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: uuid[], toreplace: uuid, replacewith: uuid) → uuid[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_replace(array: oid[], toreplace: oid, replacewith: oid) → oid[]

Replace all occurrences of toreplace in array with replacewith.

array_upper(input: anyelement[], array_dimension: int) → int

Calculates the maximum value of input on the provided array_dimension. However, because CockroachDB doesn’t yet support multi-dimensional arrays, the only supported array_dimension is 1.

Comparison Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
greatest(anyelement...) → anyelement

Returns the element with the greatest value.

least(anyelement...) → anyelement

Returns the element with the lowest value.

Date and Time Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
age(begin: timestamptz, end: timestamptz) → interval

Calculates the interval between begin and end.

age(val: timestamptz) → interval

Calculates the interval between val and the current time.

clock_timestamp() → timestamp

Returns the current wallclock time.

clock_timestamp() → timestamptz

Returns the current wallclock time.

current_date() → date

Returns the current date.

current_timestamp() → timestamp

Returns the current transaction’s timestamp.

current_timestamp() → timestamptz

Returns the current transaction’s timestamp.

experimental_strftime(input: date, extract_format: string) → string

From input, extracts and formats the time as identified in extract_format using standard strftime notation (though not all formatting is supported).

experimental_strftime(input: timestamp, extract_format: string) → string

From input, extracts and formats the time as identified in extract_format using standard strftime notation (though not all formatting is supported).

experimental_strftime(input: timestamptz, extract_format: string) → string

From input, extracts and formats the time as identified in extract_format using standard strftime notation (though not all formatting is supported).

experimental_strptime(input: string, format: string) → timestamptz

Returns input as a timestamptz using format (which uses standard strptime formatting).

extract(element: string, input: date) → int

Extracts element from input.

Compatible elements: year, quarter, month, week, dayofweek, dayofyear, hour, minute, second, millisecond, microsecond, epoch

extract(element: string, input: timestamp) → int

Extracts element from input.

Compatible elements: year, quarter, month, week, dayofweek, dayofyear, hour, minute, second, millisecond, microsecond, epoch

extract_duration(element: string, input: interval) → int

Extracts element from input. Compatible elements: hour, minute, second, millisecond, microsecond.

now() → timestamp

Returns the current transaction’s timestamp.

now() → timestamptz

Returns the current transaction’s timestamp.

statement_timestamp() → timestamp

Returns the current statement’s timestamp.

statement_timestamp() → timestamptz

Returns the current statement’s timestamp.

transaction_timestamp() → timestamp

Returns the current transaction’s timestamp.

transaction_timestamp() → timestamptz

Returns the current transaction’s timestamp.

ID Generation Functions

Function → Returns Description
experimental_uuid_v4() → bytes Returns a UUID.
gen_random_uuid() → uuid Generates a random UUID and returns it as a value of UUID type.
unique_rowid() → int Returns a unique ID used by CockroachDB to generate unique row IDs if a Primary Key isn't defined for the table. The value is a combination of the insert timestamp and the ID of the node executing the statement, which guarantees this combination is globally unique.
uuid_v4() → bytes Returns a UUID.

Math and Numeric Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
abs(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the absolute value of val.

abs(val: float) → float

Calculates the absolute value of val.

abs(val: int) → int

Calculates the absolute value of val.

acos(val: float) → float

Calculates the inverse cosine of val.

asin(val: float) → float

Calculates the inverse sine of val.

atan(val: float) → float

Calculates the inverse tangent of val.

atan2(x: float, y: float) → float

Calculates the inverse tangent of x/y.

cbrt(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the cube root (∛) of val.

cbrt(val: float) → float

Calculates the cube root (∛) of val.

ceil(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the smallest integer greater than val.

ceil(val: float) → float

Calculates the smallest integer greater than val.

ceiling(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the smallest integer greater than val.

ceiling(val: float) → float

Calculates the smallest integer greater than val.

cos(val: float) → float

Calculates the cosine of val.

cot(val: float) → float

Calculates the cotangent of val.

crc32c(bytes...) → int

Calculates the CRC-32 hash using the Castagnoli polynomial.

crc32c(string...) → int

Calculates the CRC-32 hash using the Castagnoli polynomial.

crc32ieee(bytes...) → int

Calculates the CRC-32 hash using the IEEE polynomial.

crc32ieee(string...) → int

Calculates the CRC-32 hash using the IEEE polynomial.

degrees(val: float) → float

Converts val as a radian value to a degree value.

div(x: decimal, y: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the integer quotient of x/y.

div(x: float, y: float) → float

Calculates the integer quotient of x/y.

div(x: int, y: int) → int

Calculates the integer quotient of x/y.

exp(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates e ^ val.

exp(val: float) → float

Calculates e ^ val.

floor(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the largest integer not greater than val.

floor(val: float) → float

Calculates the largest integer not greater than val.

fnv32(bytes...) → int

Calculates the 32-bit FNV-1 hash value of a set of values.

fnv32(string...) → int

Calculates the 32-bit FNV-1 hash value of a set of values.

fnv32a(bytes...) → int

Calculates the 32-bit FNV-1a hash value of a set of values.

fnv32a(string...) → int

Calculates the 32-bit FNV-1a hash value of a set of values.

fnv64(bytes...) → int

Calculates the 64-bit FNV-1 hash value of a set of values.

fnv64(string...) → int

Calculates the 64-bit FNV-1 hash value of a set of values.

fnv64a(bytes...) → int

Calculates the 64-bit FNV-1a hash value of a set of values.

fnv64a(string...) → int

Calculates the 64-bit FNV-1a hash value of a set of values.

isnan(val: decimal) → bool

Returns true if val is NaN, false otherwise.

isnan(val: float) → bool

Returns true if val is NaN, false otherwise.

ln(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the natural log of val.

ln(val: float) → float

Calculates the natural log of val.

log(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the base 10 log of val.

log(val: float) → float

Calculates the base 10 log of val.

mod(x: decimal, y: decimal) → decimal

Calculates x%y.

mod(x: float, y: float) → float

Calculates x%y.

mod(x: int, y: int) → int

Calculates x%y.

pi() → float

Returns the value for pi (3.141592653589793).

pow(x: decimal, y: decimal) → decimal

Calculates x^y.

pow(x: float, y: float) → float

Calculates x^y.

pow(x: int, y: int) → int

Calculates x^y.

power(x: decimal, y: decimal) → decimal

Calculates x^y.

power(x: float, y: float) → float

Calculates x^y.

power(x: int, y: int) → int

Calculates x^y.

radians(val: float) → float

Converts val as a degree value to a radians value.

random() → float

Returns a random float between 0 and 1.

round(input: decimal, decimal_accuracy: int) → decimal

Keeps decimal_accuracy number of figures to the right of the zero position in input using half away from zero rounding. Ifdecimal_accuracy` is not in the range -2^31…(2^31-1), the results are undefined.

round(input: float, decimal_accuracy: int) → float

Keeps decimal_accuracy number of figures to the right of the zero position in input using half to even (banker’s) rounding.

round(val: decimal) → decimal

Rounds val to the nearest integer, half away from zero: ROUND(+/-2.4) = +/-2, ROUND(+/-2.5) = +/-3.

round(val: float) → float

Rounds val to the nearest integer using half to even (banker’s) rounding.

sign(val: decimal) → decimal

Determines the sign of val: 1 for positive; 0 for 0 values; -1 for negative.

sign(val: float) → float

Determines the sign of val: 1 for positive; 0 for 0 values; -1 for negative.

sign(val: int) → int

Determines the sign of val: 1 for positive; 0 for 0 values; -1 for negative.

sin(val: float) → float

Calculates the sine of val.

sqrt(val: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the square root of val.

sqrt(val: float) → float

Calculates the square root of val.

tan(val: float) → float

Calculates the tangent of val.

to_hex(val: int) → string

Converts val to its hexadecimal representation.

trunc(val: decimal) → decimal

Truncates the decimal values of val.

trunc(val: float) → float

Truncates the decimal values of val.

String and Byte Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
ascii(val: string) → int

Calculates the ASCII value for the first character in val.

btrim(input: string, trim_chars: string) → string

Removes any characters included in trim_chars from the beginning or end of input (applies recursively).

For example, btrim('doggie', 'eod') returns ggi.

btrim(val: string) → string

Removes all spaces from the beginning and end of val.

concat(string...) → string

Concatenates a comma-separated list of strings.

concat_ws(string...) → string

Uses the first argument as a separator between the concatenation of the subsequent arguments.

For example concat_ws('!','wow','great') returns wow!great.

from_ip(val: bytes) → string

Converts the byte string representation of an IP to its character string representation.

from_uuid(val: bytes) → string

Converts the byte string representation of a UUID to its character string representation.

initcap(val: string) → string

Capitalizes the first letter of val.

left(input: bytes, return_set: int) → bytes

Returns the first return_set bytes from input.

left(input: string, return_set: int) → string

Returns the first return_set characters from input.

length(val: bytes) → int

Calculates the number of bytes in val.

length(val: string) → int

Calculates the number of characters in val.

lower(val: string) → string

Converts all characters in val to their lower-case equivalents.

ltrim(input: string, trim_chars: string) → string

Removes any characters included in trim_chars from the beginning (left-hand side) of input (applies recursively).

For example, ltrim('doggie', 'od') returns ggie.

ltrim(val: string) → string

Removes all spaces from the beginning (left-hand side) of val.

md5(bytes...) → string

Calculates the MD5 hash value of a set of values.

md5(string...) → string

Calculates the MD5 hash value of a set of values.

octet_length(val: bytes) → int

Calculates the number of bytes in val.

octet_length(val: string) → int

Calculates the number of bytes used to represent val.

overlay(input: string, overlay_val: string, start_pos: int) → string

Replaces characters in input with overlay_val starting at start_pos (begins at 1).

For example, overlay('doggie', 'CAT', 2) returns dCATie.

overlay(input: string, overlay_val: string, start_pos: int, end_pos: int) → string

Deletes the characters in input between start_pos and end_pos (count starts at 1), and then insert overlay_val at start_pos.

regexp_extract(input: string, regex: string) → string

Returns the first match for the Regular Expression regex in input.

regexp_replace(input: string, regex: string, replace: string) → string

Replaces matches for the Regular Expression regex in input with the Regular Expression replace.

regexp_replace(input: string, regex: string, replace: string, flags: string) → string

Replaces matches for the regular expression regex in input with the regular expression replace using flags.

CockroachDB supports the following flags:

Flag Description
c Case-sensitive matching
i Global matching (match each substring instead of only the first).
m or n Newline-sensitive (see below)
p Partial newline-sensitive matching (see below)
s Newline-insensitive (default)
w Inverse partial newline-sensitive matching (see below)
Mode . and [^...] match newlines ^ and $ match line boundaries
s yes no
w yes yes
p no no
m/n no yes

repeat(input: string, repeat_counter: int) → string

Concatenates input repeat_counter number of times.

For example, repeat('dog', 2) returns dogdog.

replace(input: string, find: string, replace: string) → string

Replaces all occurrences of find with replace in input

reverse(val: string) → string

Reverses the order of the string’s characters.

right(input: bytes, return_set: int) → bytes

Returns the last return_set bytes from input.

right(input: string, return_set: int) → string

Returns the last return_set characters from input.

rtrim(input: string, trim_chars: string) → string

Removes any characters included in trim_chars from the end (right-hand side) of input (applies recursively).

For example, rtrim('doggie', 'ei') returns dogg.

rtrim(val: string) → string

Removes all spaces from the end (right-hand side) of val.

sha1(bytes...) → string

Calculates the SHA1 hash value of a set of values.

sha1(string...) → string

Calculates the SHA1 hash value of a set of values.

sha256(bytes...) → string

Calculates the SHA256 hash value of a set of values.

sha256(string...) → string

Calculates the SHA256 hash value of a set of values.

sha512(bytes...) → string

Calculates the SHA512 hash value of a set of values.

sha512(string...) → string

Calculates the SHA512 hash value of a set of values.

split_part(input: string, delimiter: string, return_index_pos: int) → string

Splits input on delimiter and return the value in the return_index_pos position (starting at 1).

For example, split_part('123.456.789.0','.',3)returns 789.

strpos(input: string, find: string) → int

Calculates the position where the string find begins in input.

For example, strpos('doggie', 'gie') returns 4.

substr(input: string, regex: string) → string

Returns a substring of input that matches the regular expression regex.

substr(input: string, regex: string, escape_char: string) → string

Returns a substring of input that matches the regular expression regex using escape_char as your escape character instead of </code>.

substr(input: string, start_pos: int, end_pos: int) → string

Returns a substring of input between start_pos and end_pos (count starts at 1).

substr(input: string, substr_pos: int) → string

Returns a substring of input starting at substr_pos (count starts at 1).

substring(input: string, regex: string) → string

Returns a substring of input that matches the regular expression regex.

substring(input: string, regex: string, escape_char: string) → string

Returns a substring of input that matches the regular expression regex using escape_char as your escape character instead of </code>.

substring(input: string, start_pos: int, end_pos: int) → string

Returns a substring of input between start_pos and end_pos (count starts at 1).

substring(input: string, substr_pos: int) → string

Returns a substring of input starting at substr_pos (count starts at 1).

to_english(val: int) → string

This function enunciates the value of its argument using English cardinals.

to_hex(val: bytes) → string

Converts val to its hexadecimal representation.

to_ip(val: string) → bytes

Converts the character string representation of an IP to its byte string representation.

to_uuid(val: string) → bytes

Converts the character string representation of a UUID to its byte string representation.

translate(input: string, find: string, replace: string) → string

In input, replaces the first character from find with the first character in replace; repeat for each character in find.

For example, translate('doggie', 'dog', '123'); returns 1233ie.

upper(val: string) → string

Converts all characters in val to their to their upper-case equivalents.

System Info Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
cluster_logical_timestamp() → decimal

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.cluster_id() → uuid

Returns the cluster ID.

crdb_internal.force_error(errorCode: string, msg: string) → int

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.force_log_fatal(msg: string) → int

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.force_panic(msg: string) → int

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.force_retry(val: interval) → int

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.force_retry(val: interval, txnID: string) → int

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.no_constant_folding(input: anyelement) → anyelement

This function is used only by CockroachDB’s developers for testing purposes.

crdb_internal.set_vmodule(vmodule_string: string) → int

This function is used for internal debugging purposes. Incorrect use can severely impact performance.

current_database() → string

Returns the current database.

current_schema() → string

Returns the current schema. This function is provided for compatibility with PostgreSQL. For a new CockroachDB application, consider using current_database() instead.

current_schemas(include_pg_catalog: bool) → string[]

Returns the current search path for unqualified names.

current_user() → string

Returns the current user. This function is provided for compatibility with PostgreSQL.

version() → string

Returns the node’s version of CockroachDB.

Compatibility Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
format_type(type_oid: oid, typemod: int) → string

Returns the SQL name of a data type that is identified by its type OID and possibly a type modifier. Currently, the type modifier is ignored.

generate_series(start: int, end: int) → setof tuple{int}

Produces a virtual table containing the integer values from start to end, inclusive.

generate_series(start: int, end: int, step: int) → setof tuple{int}

Produces a virtual table containing the integer values from start to end, inclusive, by increment of step.

oid(int: int) → oid

Converts an integer to an OID.

unnest(input: anyelement[]) → anyelement

Returns the input array as a set of rows

Aggregate Functions

Function → ReturnsDescription
array_agg(arg: anyelement) → anyelement

Aggregates the selected values into an array.

avg(arg: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the average of the selected values.

avg(arg: float) → float

Calculates the average of the selected values.

avg(arg: int) → decimal

Calculates the average of the selected values.

bool_and(arg: bool) → bool

Calculates the boolean value of ANDing all selected values.

bool_or(arg: bool) → bool

Calculates the boolean value of ORing all selected values.

concat_agg(arg: bytes) → bytes

Concatenates all selected values.

concat_agg(arg: string) → string

Concatenates all selected values.

count(arg: anyelement) → int

Calculates the number of selected elements.

count_rows() → int

Calculates the number of rows.

max(arg: bool) → bool

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: bytes) → bytes

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: date) → date

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: decimal) → decimal

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: float) → float

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: int) → int

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: interval) → interval

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: string) → string

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: timestamp) → timestamp

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: timestamptz) → timestamptz

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: uuid) → uuid

Identifies the maximum selected value.

max(arg: oid) → oid

Identifies the maximum selected value.

min(arg: bool) → bool

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: bytes) → bytes

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: date) → date

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: decimal) → decimal

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: float) → float

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: int) → int

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: interval) → interval

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: string) → string

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: timestamp) → timestamp

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: timestamptz) → timestamptz

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: uuid) → uuid

Identifies the minimum selected value.

min(arg: oid) → oid

Identifies the minimum selected value.

stddev(arg: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the standard deviation of the selected values.

stddev(arg: float) → float

Calculates the standard deviation of the selected values.

stddev(arg: int) → decimal

Calculates the standard deviation of the selected values.

sum(arg: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the sum of the selected values.

sum(arg: float) → float

Calculates the sum of the selected values.

sum(arg: int) → decimal

Calculates the sum of the selected values.

sum(arg: interval) → interval

Calculates the sum of the selected values.

sum_int(arg: int) → int

Calculates the sum of the selected values.

variance(arg: decimal) → decimal

Calculates the variance of the selected values.

variance(arg: float) → float

Calculates the variance of the selected values.

variance(arg: int) → decimal

Calculates the variance of the selected values.

xor_agg(arg: bytes) → bytes

Calculates the bitwise XOR of the selected values.

xor_agg(arg: int) → int

Calculates the bitwise XOR of the selected values.

Operators

The following table lists all CockroachDB operators from highest to lowest precedence, i.e., the order in which they will be evaluated within a statement. Operators with the same precedence are left associative. This means that those operators are grouped together starting from the left and moving right.

Order of Precedence Operator Name Operator Arity
1 . Member field access operator binary
2 :: Type cast binary
3 - Unary minus unary
~ Bitwise not unary
4 ^ Exponentiation binary
5 * Multiplication binary
/ Division binary
// Floor division binary
% Modulo binary
6 + Addition binary
- Subtraction binary
7 << Bitwise left-shift binary
>> Bitwise right-shift binary
8 & Bitwise and binary
9 # Bitwise xor binary
10 | Bitwise or binary
11 || Concatenation binary
12 [NOT] BETWEEN Value is [not] within the range specified binary
[NOT] IN Value is [not] in the set of values specified binary
[NOT] LIKE Matches [or not] LIKE expression, case sensitive binary
[NOT] ILIKE Matches [or not] LIKE expression, case insensitive binary
[NOT] SIMILAR Matches [or not] SIMILAR TO regular expression binary
~ Matches regular expression, case sensitive binary
!~ Does not match regular expression, case sensitive binary
~* Matches regular expression, case insensitive binary
!~* Does not match regular expression, case insensitive binary
13 = Equal binary
< Less than binary
> Greater than binary
<= Less than or equal to binary
>= Greater than or equal to binary
!=, <> Not equal binary
14 IS Value identity binary
15 NOT Logical NOT unary
16 AND Logical AND binary
17 OR Logical OR binary

Supported Operations

#Return
int # intint
%Return
decimal % decimaldecimal
decimal % intdecimal
float % floatfloat
int % decimaldecimal
int % intint
&Return
int & intint
*Return
decimal * decimaldecimal
decimal * intdecimal
float * floatfloat
int * decimaldecimal
int * intint
int * intervalinterval
interval * floatinterval
interval * intinterval
+Return
+decimaldecimal
+floatfloat
+intint
date + intdate
date + intervaltimestamptz
decimal + decimaldecimal
decimal + intdecimal
float + floatfloat
int + datedate
int + decimaldecimal
int + intint
interval + datetimestamptz
interval + intervalinterval
interval + timestamptimestamp
interval + timestamptztimestamptz
timestamp + intervaltimestamp
timestamptz + intervaltimestamptz
-Return
-decimaldecimal
-floatfloat
-intint
-intervalinterval
date - dateint
date - intdate
date - intervaltimestamptz
decimal - decimaldecimal
decimal - intdecimal
float - floatfloat
int - decimaldecimal
int - intint
interval - intervalinterval
timestamp - intervaltimestamp
timestamp - timestampinterval
timestamp - timestamptzinterval
timestamptz - intervaltimestamptz
timestamptz - timestampinterval
timestamptz - timestamptzinterval
/Return
decimal / decimaldecimal
decimal / intdecimal
float / floatfloat
int / decimaldecimal
int / intdecimal
interval / floatinterval
interval / intinterval
//Return
decimal // decimaldecimal
decimal // intdecimal
float // floatfloat
int // decimaldecimal
int // intint
<Return
bool < boolbool
bytes < bytesbool
collatedstring < collatedstringbool
date < datebool
date < timestampbool
date < timestamptzbool
decimal < decimalbool
decimal < floatbool
decimal < intbool
float < decimalbool
float < floatbool
float < intbool
int < decimalbool
int < floatbool
int < intbool
interval < intervalbool
string < stringbool
timestamp < datebool
timestamp < timestampbool
timestamp < timestamptzbool
timestamptz < datebool
timestamptz < timestampbool
timestamptz < timestamptzbool
tuple < tuplebool
uuid < uuidbool
<<Return
int << intint
<=Return
bool <= boolbool
bytes <= bytesbool
collatedstring <= collatedstringbool
date <= datebool
date <= timestampbool
date <= timestamptzbool
decimal <= decimalbool
decimal <= floatbool
decimal <= intbool
float <= decimalbool
float <= floatbool
float <= intbool
int <= decimalbool
int <= floatbool
int <= intbool
interval <= intervalbool
string <= stringbool
timestamp <= datebool
timestamp <= timestampbool
timestamp <= timestamptzbool
timestamptz <= datebool
timestamptz <= timestampbool
timestamptz <= timestamptzbool
tuple <= tuplebool
uuid <= uuidbool
=Return
bool = boolbool
bool[] = bool[]bool
bytes = bytesbool
bytes[] = bytes[]bool
collatedstring = collatedstringbool
date = datebool
date = timestampbool
date = timestamptzbool
date[] = date[]bool
decimal = decimalbool
decimal = floatbool
decimal = intbool
decimal[] = decimal[]bool
float = decimalbool
float = floatbool
float = intbool
float[] = float[]bool
int = decimalbool
int = floatbool
int = intbool
int[] = int[]bool
interval = intervalbool
interval[] = interval[]bool
oid = oidbool
oid = oidbool
string = stringbool
string[] = string[]bool
timestamp = datebool
timestamp = timestampbool
timestamp = timestamptzbool
timestamp[] = timestamp[]bool
timestamptz = datebool
timestamptz = timestampbool
timestamptz = timestamptzbool
timestamptz = timestamptzbool
tuple = tuplebool
uuid = uuidbool
uuid[] = uuid[]bool
>>Return
int >> intint
ILIKEReturn
string ILIKE stringbool
INReturn
bool IN tuplebool
bytes IN tuplebool
collatedstring IN tuplebool
date IN tuplebool
decimal IN tuplebool
float IN tuplebool
int IN tuplebool
interval IN tuplebool
oid IN tuplebool
string IN tuplebool
timestamp IN tuplebool
timestamptz IN tuplebool
tuple IN tuplebool
uuid IN tuplebool
LIKEReturn
string LIKE stringbool
SIMILAR TOReturn
string SIMILAR TO stringbool
^Return
decimal ^ decimaldecimal
decimal ^ intdecimal
float ^ floatfloat
int ^ decimaldecimal
int ^ intint
|Return
int | intint
||Return
bool || bool[]bool[]
bool[] || boolbool[]
bool[] || bool[]bool[]
bytes || bytesbytes
bytes || bytes[]bytes[]
bytes[] || bytesbytes[]
bytes[] || bytes[]bytes[]
date || date[]date[]
date[] || datedate[]
date[] || date[]date[]
decimal || decimal[]decimal[]
decimal[] || decimaldecimal[]
decimal[] || decimal[]decimal[]
float || float[]float[]
float[] || floatfloat[]
float[] || float[]float[]
int || int[]int[]
int[] || intint[]
int[] || int[]int[]
interval || interval[]interval[]
interval[] || intervalinterval[]
interval[] || interval[]interval[]
oid || oidoid
oid || oidoid
oid || oidoid
string || stringstring
string || string[]string[]
string[] || stringstring[]
string[] || string[]string[]
timestamp || timestamp[]timestamp[]
timestamp[] || timestamptimestamp[]
timestamp[] || timestamp[]timestamp[]
timestamptz || timestamptztimestamptz
timestamptz || timestamptztimestamptz
timestamptz || timestamptztimestamptz
uuid || uuid[]uuid[]
uuid[] || uuiduuid[]
uuid[] || uuid[]uuid[]
~Return
~intint
string ~ stringbool
~*Return
string ~* stringbool


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