New in v19.2: The UNSPLIT AT statement removes a split enforcement on a range split, at a specified row in a table or index.

Removing a split enforcement from a table or index ("unsplitting") allows CockroachDB to merge ranges as needed, to help improve your cluster's performance. For more information, see Range Merges.

Synopsis

ALTER TABLE table_name UNSPLIT AT select_stmt ALL
ALTER INDEX table_name @ index_name UNSPLIT AT select_stmt ALL

Required privileges

The user must have the INSERT privilege on the table or index.

Parameters

Parameter Description
table_name The name of the table that you want to unsplit.
table_name @ index_name
standalone_index_name
The name of the index that you want to unsplit.
select_stmt A selection query that produces one or more rows at which to unsplit a table or index.

Examples

Setup

The following examples use MovR, a fictional vehicle-sharing application, to demonstrate CockroachDB SQL statements. For more information about the MovR example application and dataset, see MovR: A Global Vehicle-sharing App.

To follow along, run cockroach demo with the --nodes and --demo-locality flags. This command opens an interactive SQL shell to a temporary, multi-node in-memory cluster with the movr database preloaded and set as the current database.

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$ cockroach demo --nodes=3 --demo-locality=region=us-east1:region=us-central1:region=us-west1

Unsplit a table

The crdb_internal.ranges table contains information about ranges in your CockroachDB cluster. At this point, just one range contains the data in the users table:

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> SELECT range_id, start_pretty, end_pretty, split_enforced_until FROM crdb_internal.ranges WHERE table_name='users';
  range_id | start_pretty | end_pretty | split_enforced_until
+----------+--------------+------------+----------------------+
        21 | /Table/53    | /Table/54  | NULL
(1 row)

Now split the users table ranges based on primary key values:

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> ALTER TABLE users SPLIT AT VALUES ('chicago'), ('new york'), ('seattle');
              key              |         pretty         |       split_enforced_until
+------------------------------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
  \275\211\022chicago\000\001  | /Table/53/1/"chicago"  | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
  \275\211\022new york\000\001 | /Table/53/1/"new york" | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
  \275\211\022seattle\000\001  | /Table/53/1/"seattle"  | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
(3 rows)

You can see the additional ranges in the crdb_internal.ranges table:

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> SELECT range_id, start_pretty, end_pretty, split_enforced_until FROM crdb_internal.ranges WHERE table_name='users';
  range_id |      start_pretty      |       end_pretty       |       split_enforced_until
+----------+------------------------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
        21 | /Table/53              | /Table/53/1/"chicago"  | NULL
        27 | /Table/53/1/"chicago"  | /Table/53/1/"new york" | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
        28 | /Table/53/1/"new york" | /Table/53/1/"seattle"  | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
        29 | /Table/53/1/"seattle"  | /Table/54              | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
(4 rows)

Now unsplit the table to remove the split enforcements:

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> ALTER TABLE users UNSPLIT AT VALUES ('chicago'), ('new york'), ('seattle');
              key              |         pretty
+------------------------------+------------------------+
  \275\211\022chicago\000\001  | /Table/53/1/"chicago"
  \275\211\022new york\000\001 | /Table/53/1/"new york"
  \275\211\022seattle\000\001  | /Table/53/1/"seattle"
(3 rows)
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> SELECT range_id, start_pretty, end_pretty, split_enforced_until FROM crdb_internal.ranges WHERE table_name='users';
  range_id |      start_pretty      |       end_pretty       | split_enforced_until
+----------+------------------------+------------------------+----------------------+
        21 | /Table/53              | /Table/53/1/"chicago"  | NULL
        27 | /Table/53/1/"chicago"  | /Table/53/1/"new york" | NULL
        28 | /Table/53/1/"new york" | /Table/53/1/"seattle"  | NULL
        29 | /Table/53/1/"seattle"  | /Table/54              | NULL
(4 rows)

The users table is still split into ranges at 'chicago', 'new york', and 'seattle', but the split_enforced_until column is now NULL for all ranges in the table. The split is no longer enforced, and CockroachDB can merge the data in the table as needed.

Unsplit an index

Add a new secondary index to the rides table, on the revenue column, and then split the table ranges by secondary index values:

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> CREATE INDEX revenue_idx ON rides(revenue);
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> ALTER INDEX rides@revenue_idx SPLIT AT VALUES (25.00), (50.00), (75.00);
         key        |      pretty      |       split_enforced_until
+-------------------+------------------+----------------------------------+
  \277\214*2\000    | /Table/55/4/25   | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
  \277\214*d\000    | /Table/55/4/5E+1 | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
  \277\214*\226\000 | /Table/55/4/75   | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
(3 rows)
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> SELECT range_id, start_pretty, end_pretty, split_enforced_until FROM crdb_internal.ranges WHERE table_name='rides';
  range_id |   start_pretty   |    end_pretty    |       split_enforced_until
+----------+------------------+------------------+----------------------------------+
        23 | /Table/55        | /Table/55/4      | NULL
        32 | /Table/55/4      | /Table/55/4/25   | 2019-09-10 21:27:35.056275+00:00
        33 | /Table/55/4/25   | /Table/55/4/5E+1 | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
        34 | /Table/55/4/5E+1 | /Table/55/4/75   | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
        35 | /Table/55/4/75   | /Table/56        | 2262-04-11 23:47:16.854776+00:00
(5 rows)

Now unsplit the index to remove the split enforcements:

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> ALTER INDEX rides@revenue_idx UNSPLIT AT VALUES (25.00), (50.00), (75.00);
         key        |      pretty
+-------------------+------------------+
  \277\214*2\000    | /Table/55/4/25
  \277\214*d\000    | /Table/55/4/5E+1
  \277\214*\226\000 | /Table/55/4/75
(3 rows)
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> SELECT range_id, start_pretty, end_pretty, split_enforced_until FROM crdb_internal.ranges WHERE table_name='rides';
  range_id |   start_pretty   |    end_pretty    |       split_enforced_until
+----------+------------------+------------------+----------------------------------+
        23 | /Table/55        | /Table/55/4      | NULL
        32 | /Table/55/4      | /Table/55/4/25   | 2019-09-10 21:27:35.056275+00:00
        33 | /Table/55/4/25   | /Table/55/4/5E+1 | NULL
        34 | /Table/55/4/5E+1 | /Table/55/4/75   | NULL
        35 | /Table/55/4/75   | /Table/56        | NULL
(5 rows)

The table is still split into ranges at 25.00, 50.00, and 75.00, but the split_enforced_until column is now NULL for all ranges in the table. The split is no longer enforced, and CockroachDB can merge the data in the table as needed.

See also



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