CREATE SCHEDULE FOR BACKUP

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Cockroach Labs will stop providing Assistance Support for v23.1 on November 15, 2024. Prior to that date, upgrade to a more recent version to continue receiving support. For more details, refer to the Release Support Policy.

The CREATE SCHEDULE FOR BACKUP statement creates a schedule for periodic backups.

For more information about creating, managing, monitoring, and restoring from a scheduled backup, see Manage a Backup Schedule.

Note:

Core users can only use backup scheduling for full backups of clusters, databases, or tables. If you do not specify the FULL BACKUP ALWAYS clause when you schedule a backup, you will receive a warning that the schedule will only run full backups.

To use the other backup features, you need an Enterprise license.

Required privileges

Note:

Starting in v22.2, CockroachDB introduces a new system-level privilege model that provides finer control over a user's privilege to work with the database, including taking backups.

There is continued support for the legacy privilege model for backups in v22.2, however it will be removed in a future release of CockroachDB. We recommend implementing the new privilege model that follows in this section for all new and existing backups.

You can grant the BACKUP privilege to a user or role depending on the type of backup:

Backup Privilege
Cluster Grant a user the BACKUP system-level privilege. For example, GRANT SYSTEM BACKUP TO user;.
Database Grant a user the BACKUP privilege on the target database. For example, GRANT BACKUP ON DATABASE test_db TO user;.
Table Grant a user the BACKUP privilege at the table level. This gives the user the privilege to back up the schema and all user-defined types that are associated with the table. For example, GRANT BACKUP ON TABLE test_db.table TO user;.

The listed privileges do not cascade to objects lower in the schema tree. For example, if you are granted database-level BACKUP privileges, this does not give you the privilege to back up a table. If you need the BACKUP privilege on a database to apply to all newly created tables in that database, use DEFAULT PRIVILEGES. You can add BACKUP to the user or role's default privileges with ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES.

Note:

You can grant the BACKUP privilege to a user or role without the SELECT privilege on a table. As a result, these users will be able to take backups, but they will not be able to run a SELECT query on that data directly. However, these users could still read this data indirectly, by restoring it from any backups they produce.

Members of the admin role can run all three types of backups (cluster, database, and table) without the need to grant a specific BACKUP privilege. However, we recommend using the BACKUP privilege model to create users or roles and grant them BACKUP privileges as necessary for stronger access control.

Privileges for managing a backup job

To manage a backup job with PAUSE JOB, RESUME JOB, or CANCEL JOB, users must have at least one of the following:

To view a backup job with SHOW JOB, users must have at least one of the following:

See GRANT for detail on granting privileges to a role or user.

Required privileges using the legacy privilege model

The following details the legacy privilege model that CockroachDB supports in v22.2 and earlier. Support for this privilege model will be removed in a future release of CockroachDB:

  • Full cluster backups can only be run by members of the admin role. By default, the root user belongs to the admin role.
  • For all other backups, the user must have read access on all objects being backed up. Database backups require CONNECT privileges, and table backups require SELECT privileges. Backups of user-defined schemas, or backups containing user-defined types, require USAGE privileges.

See the Required privileges section for the updated privilege model.

Destination privileges

You can grant a user the EXTERNALIOIMPLICITACCESS system-level privilege.

Either the EXTERNALIOIMPLICITACCESS system-level privilege or the admin role is required for the following scenarios:

No special privilege is required for:

  • Interacting with an Amazon S3 and Google Cloud Storage resource using SPECIFIED credentials. Azure Storage is always SPECIFIED by default.
  • Using Userfile storage.

We recommend using cloud storage. You also need to ensure that the permissions at your storage destination are configured for the operation. See Storage Permissions for a list of the necessary permissions that each bulk operation requires.

Synopsis

CREATE SCHEDULE [IF NOT EXISTS] <label>
FOR BACKUP [<targets>] INTO <location>
[WITH <backup_options>[=<value>] [, ...]]
RECURRING [crontab] [FULL BACKUP <crontab|ALWAYS>]
[WITH SCHEDULE OPTIONS <schedule_option>[= <value>] [, ...] ]

Targets:
   Empty targets list: backup full cluster.
   TABLE <table_pattern> [, ...]
   DATABASE <database_name> [, ...]

Parameters

Parameter Description
IF NOT EXISTS Use to specify that a scheduled backup should not be created if the label already exists. Produces an error if the schedule label already exists, or if the label is not specified.
label The name used to identify the backup schedule. This is optional and does not need to be unique. If not provided, the schedule will be assigned the name BACKUP.
targets The targets you want to back up:
table_pattern The table(s) or view(s) you want to back up.
database_name The name of the database(s) you want to back up (i.e., create backups of all tables and views in the database).
location The URI where you want to store the backup. The backup files will be stored in year > month > day subdirectories. The location can be cloud storage, or nodelocal.

Note: If you want to schedule a backup using temporary credentials, we recommend that you use implicit authentication; otherwise, you'll need to drop and then recreate schedules each time you need to update the credentials.
backup_options Control the backup behavior with a comma-separated list of options.
RECURRING crontab Specifies when the backup should be taken. A separate schedule may be created automatically to write full backups at a regular cadence, depending on the frequency of the incremental backups. You can likewise modify this separate schedule with ALTER BACKUP SCHEDULE. The schedule is specified as a STRING in crontab format. All times in UTC.

Example: '@daily' (run daily at midnight)
FULL BACKUP crontab Specifies when to take a new full backup. The schedule is specified as a STRING in crontab format or as ALWAYS.

If FULL BACKUP ALWAYS is specified, then the backups triggered by the RECURRING clause will always be full backups.
Note: If you do not have an Enterprise license then you can only take full backups. ALWAYS is the only accepted value of FULL BACKUP.

If the FULL BACKUP clause is omitted, CockroachDB will default to the following full backup schedule:
  • RECURRING <= 1 hour: Default to FULL BACKUP '@daily'
  • RECURRING <= 1 day: Default to FULL BACKUP '@weekly'
  • Otherwise: Default to FULL BACKUP ALWAYS
WITH SCHEDULE OPTIONS schedule_option Control the schedule behavior with a comma-separated list of these options.
Note:

For schedules that include both full and incremental backups, CockroachDB will create two schedules (one for each type). See Incremental backup schedules for more information.

Backup options

Option Value Description
revision_history BOOL / None Create a backup with full revision history, which records every change made to the cluster within the garbage collection period leading up to and including the given timestamp.

You can specify a backup with revision history without any value e.g., WITH revision_history. Or, you can explicitly define WITH revision_history = 'true' / 'false'. The revision_history option defaults to true when used with BACKUP or CREATE SCHEDULE FOR BACKUP. A value is required when using ALTER BACKUP SCHEDULE to alter a backup schedule.
encryption_passphrase STRING The passphrase used to encrypt the files (BACKUP manifest and data files) that the BACKUP statement generates. This same passphrase is needed to decrypt the file when it is used to restore and to list the contents of the backup when using SHOW BACKUP. There is no practical limit on the length of the passphrase.
detached BOOL / None Note: Backups running on a schedule have the detached option applied implicitly. Therefore, you cannot modify this option for scheduled backups.

When a backup runs in detached mode, it will execute asynchronously. The job ID will be returned after the backup job creation completes. Note that with detached specified, further job information and the job completion status will not be returned. For more on the differences between the returned job data, see the example. To check on the job status, use the SHOW JOBS statement.
New in v23.1: EXECUTION LOCALITY Key-value pairs Restricts the execution of the backup to nodes that match the defined locality filter requirements. For example, WITH EXECUTION LOCALITY = 'region=us-west-1a,cloud=aws'.

Refer to Take Locality-restricted backups for usage and reference detail.
kms STRING The URI of the cryptographic key stored in a key management service (KMS), or a comma-separated list of key URIs, used to take and restore encrypted backups. Refer to URI Formats. The key or keys are used to encrypt the manifest and data files that the BACKUP statement generates and to decrypt them during a restore operation, and to list the contents of the backup when using SHOW BACKUP.

AWS KMS, Google Cloud KMS, and Azure Key Vault are supported.
incremental_location STRING Create an incremental backup in a different location than the default incremental backup location.

WITH incremental_location = 'explicit_incrementals_URI'

See Incremental backups with explicitly specified destinations for usage.

Schedule options

Option Value Description
first_run TIMESTAMPTZ / now Execute the schedule at the specified time in the future. If not specified, the default behavior is to execute the schedule based on its next RECURRING time.
on_execution_failure retry / reschedule / pause If an error occurs during the backup execution, do the following:
  • retry: Retry the backup right away.
  • reschedule: Retry the backup by rescheduling it based on the RECURRING expression.
  • pause: Pause the schedule. This requires manual intervention to resume the schedule.

Default: reschedule
on_previous_running start / skip / wait If the previous backup started by the schedule is still running, do the following:
  • start: Start the new backup anyway, even if the previous one is still running.
  • skip: Skip the new backup and run the next backup based on the RECURRING expression.
  • wait: Wait for the previous backup to complete.

Default: wait. The option affects backups started by the full backup schedule only. Incremental backups are always set to wait.
ignore_existing_backups N/A If backups were already created in the destination that the new schedule references, this option must be passed to acknowledge that the new schedule may be backing up different objects.
updates_cluster_last_backup_time_metric N/A (admin privileges required) When set during backup schedule creation, this option updates the schedules_backup_last_completed_time metric for the scheduled backup.

Considerations

  • We recommend that you schedule your backups at a cadence that your cluster can keep up with; for example, if a previous backup is still running when it is time to start the next one, adjust the schedule so the backups do not end up falling behind or update the on_previous_running option.
  • To prevent scheduled backups from falling behind, first determine how long a single backup takes and use that as your starting point for the schedule's cadence.
  • Ensure you are monitoring your backup schedule (e.g., Prometheus) and alerting metrics that will confirm that your backups are completing, but also that they're not running more concurrently than you expect.
  • The AS OF SYSTEM TIME clause cannot be set on scheduled backups. Scheduled backups are started shortly after the scheduled time has passed by an internal polling mechanism and are automatically run with AS OF SYSTEM TIME set to the time at which the backup was scheduled to run.
  • If you want to schedule a backup using temporary credentials, we recommend that you use implicit authentication; otherwise, you'll need to drop and then recreate schedules each time you need to update the credentials.

Protected timestamps and scheduled backups

Scheduled backups ensure that the data to be backed up is protected from garbage collection until it has been successfully backed up. This active management of protected timestamps means that you can run scheduled backups at a cadence independent from the GC TTL of the data. This is unlike non-scheduled backups that are tightly coupled to the GC TTL. See Garbage collection and backups for more detail.

The data being backed up will not be eligible for garbage collection until a successful backup completes. At this point, the schedule will release the existing protected timestamp record and write a new one to protect data for the next backup that is scheduled to run. It is important to consider that when a scheduled backup fails there will be an accumulation of data until the next successful backup. Resolving the backup failure or dropping the backup schedule will make the data eligible for garbage collection once again.

You can also use the exclude_data_from_backup option with a scheduled backup as a way to prevent protected timestamps from prolonging garbage collection on a table. See the example Exclude a table's data from backups for usage information.

We recommend monitoring your backup schedule to alert for failed backups:

Incremental backup schedules

The incremental backup schedule is created in a paused state, and is only un-paused on completion of the first, scheduled full backup. This ensures that the first incremental backup is only executed once it has a full backup to build a chain from. Thereafter, the incremental backups are scheduled to run at its specified cadence.

Incremental backups always append to the latest, complete full backup. An incremental backup can run concurrently with a full backup, but in such a situation it will continue to append to the previous full backup that has already completed.

An incremental backup will always wait for another incremental backup started by the same schedule to complete before running. This prevents incremental backups from backing up overlapping spans of time in the same backup chain. To enforce this, backup schedules created or altered using the on_previous_running option will have the full backup schedule created with the user specified option, but will always default the incremental backup schedule option to on_previous_running = wait.

View and control backup schedules

Once a backup schedule is successfully created, you can do the following:

Action SQL Statement
View the schedule SHOW SCHEDULES
Pause the schedule PAUSE SCHEDULES
Resume the schedule RESUME SCHEDULES
Drop the schedule DROP SCHEDULES
Alter the schedule ALTER BACKUP SCHEDULE

View and control a backup initiated by a schedule

After CockroachDB successfully initiates a scheduled backup, it registers the backup as a job. You can do the following with each individual backup job:

Action SQL Statement
View the backup status SHOW JOBS
Pause the backup PAUSE JOB
Resume the backup RESUME JOB
Cancel the backup CANCEL JOB

You can also visit the Jobs page of the DB Console to view job details. The BACKUP statement will return when the backup is finished or if it encounters an error.

Examples

Create a schedule for full backups only (core)

Core users can only use backup scheduling for full backups of clusters, databases, or tables. Full backups are taken with the FULL BACKUP ALWAYS clause, for example:

icon/buttons/copy
> CREATE SCHEDULE core_schedule_label
  FOR BACKUP INTO 's3://test/schedule-test-core?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x'
    RECURRING '@daily'
    FULL BACKUP ALWAYS
    WITH SCHEDULE OPTIONS first_run = 'now';
     schedule_id     |        name         | status |         first_run         | schedule |                                                                                       backup_stmt
---------------------+---------------------+--------+---------------------------+----------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  588799238330220545 | core_schedule_label | ACTIVE | 2020-09-11 00:00:00+00:00 | @daily   | BACKUP INTO 's3://test/schedule-test-core?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH detached
(1 row)

To use the other backup features, you need an Enterprise license.

Create a scheduled backup for a cluster

This example creates a schedule for a cluster backup with revision history that's taken every day at midnight:

icon/buttons/copy
> CREATE SCHEDULE schedule_label
  FOR BACKUP INTO 's3://test/backups/schedule_test?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x'
    WITH revision_history
    RECURRING '@daily';
     schedule_id     |     name       |                     status                     |            first_run             | schedule |                                                                               backup_stmt
---------------------+----------------+------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------+----------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  588796190000218113 | schedule_label | PAUSED: Waiting for initial backup to complete | NULL                             | @daily   | BACKUP INTO LATEST IN 's3://test/schedule-test?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
  588796190012702721 | schedule_label | ACTIVE                                         | 2020-09-10 16:52:17.280821+00:00 | @weekly  | BACKUP INTO 's3://test/schedule-test?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
(2 rows)

Because the FULL BACKUP clause is not included, CockroachDB also scheduled a full backup to run @weekly. This is the default cadence for incremental backups RECURRING > 1 hour but <= 1 day.

Create a scheduled backup for a database

This example creates a schedule for a backup of the database movr with revision history that's taken every day 1 minute past midnight (00:00:01):

icon/buttons/copy
> CREATE SCHEDULE schedule_database
  FOR BACKUP DATABASE movr INTO 's3://test/schedule-database?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x'
    WITH revision_history
    RECURRING '1 0 * * *';
     schedule_id     |       name        |                     status                     |            first_run             | schedule  |                                                                           backup_stmt
---------------------+-------------------+------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------+-----------+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  588819866656997377 | schedule_database | PAUSED: Waiting for initial backup to complete | NULL                             | 1 0 * * * | BACKUP DATABASE movr INTO LATEST IN 's3://test/schedule-database?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
  588819866674233345 | schedule_database | ACTIVE                                         | 2020-09-10 18:52:42.823003+00:00 | @weekly   | BACKUP DATABASE movr INTO 's3://test/schedule-database?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
(2 rows)

Because the FULL BACKUP clause is not included, CockroachDB also scheduled a full backup to run @weekly. This is the default cadence for incremental backups RECURRING > 1 hour but <= 1 day.

Create a scheduled backup for a table

This example creates a schedule for a backup of the table movr.vehicles with revision history that's taken every hour:

icon/buttons/copy
> CREATE SCHEDULE schedule_table
  FOR BACKUP TABLE movr.vehicles INTO 's3://test/schedule-table?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x'
    WITH revision_history
    RECURRING '@hourly';
     schedule_id     |       name     |                     status                     |            first_run             | schedule |                                                                             backup_stmt
---------------------+----------------+------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  588820615348027393 | schedule_table | PAUSED: Waiting for initial backup to complete | NULL                             | @hourly  | BACKUP TABLE movr.vehicles INTO LATEST IN 's3://test/schedule-table?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
  588820615382302721 | schedule_table | ACTIVE                                         | 2020-09-10 18:56:31.305782+00:00 | @daily   | BACKUP TABLE movr.vehicles INTO 's3://test/schedule-table?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
(2 rows)

Because the FULL BACKUP clause is not included, CockroachDB also scheduled a full backup to run @daily. This is the default cadence for incremental backups RECURRING <= 1 hour.

Create a scheduled backup with a scheduled first run

This example creates a schedule for a backup of the table movr.vehicles with revision history that's taken every hour, with its first run scheduled for 2020-09-15 00:00:00.00 (UTC):

icon/buttons/copy
> CREATE SCHEDULE scheduled_first_run
  FOR BACKUP TABLE movr.vehicles INTO 's3://test/schedule-table?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x'
    WITH revision_history
    RECURRING '@hourly'
    WITH SCHEDULE OPTIONS first_run = '2020-09-15 00:00:00.00';
     schedule_id     |        name         |                     status                     |         first_run         | schedule |                                                                                backup_stmt
---------------------+---------------------+------------------------------------------------+---------------------------+----------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  589963390457741313 | scheduled_first_run | PAUSED: Waiting for initial backup to complete | NULL                      | @hourly  | BACKUP TABLE movr.vehicles INTO LATEST IN 's3://test/scheduled-first-run?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
  589963390487363585 | scheduled_first_run | ACTIVE                                         | 2020-09-15 00:00:00+00:00 | @daily   | BACKUP TABLE movr.vehicles INTO 's3://test/scheduled-first-run?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH revision_history, detached
(2 rows)

Because the FULL BACKUP clause is not included, CockroachDB also scheduled a full backup to run @daily. This is the default cadence for incremental backups RECURRING <= 1 hour.

Create a scheduled backup with schedule options

This example creates a schedule for a cluster backup with the on_previous_running option:

icon/buttons/copy
> CREATE SCHEDULE schedule_option
  FOR BACKUP INTO 's3://test/backups/schedule_test?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x'
    RECURRING '@daily'
    WITH SCHEDULE OPTIONS on_previous_running = 'start';
     schedule_id     |      label      |                     status                     |          first_run           | schedule |                                                         backup_stmt
---------------------+-----------------+------------------------------------------------+------------------------------+----------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  866226603264475137 | schedule_option | PAUSED: Waiting for initial backup to complete | NULL                         | @daily   | BACKUP INTO LATEST IN 's3://test/backups/schedule_test?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH detached
  866226603270635521 | schedule_option | ACTIVE                                         | 2023-05-18 14:56:20.39198+00 | @weekly  | BACKUP INTO 's3://test/backups/schedule_test?AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=x&AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=x' WITH detached
(2 rows)

The schedule starts a new backup, even if the previous one is still running because the user specified option for on_previous_running = 'start'. The incremental backup remains PAUSED until the initial full backup is complete.

Because the FULL BACKUP clause is not included, CockroachDB also schedules a full backup to run @daily. This is the default cadence for incremental backups RECURRING <= 1 hour.

View scheduled backup details

When a backup is created by a schedule, it is stored within a collection of backups in the given location. To view details for a backup created by a schedule, you can use the following:

For more details, see SHOW BACKUP.

See also


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