The TIMESTAMP and TIMESTAMPTZ data types stores a date and time pair in UTC.

Variants

TIMESTAMP has two variants:

  • TIMESTAMP presents all TIMESTAMP values in UTC.

  • TIMESTAMPTZ converts TIMESTAMP values from UTC to the client's session time zone (unless another time zone is specified for the value). However, it is conceptually important to note that TIMESTAMPTZ does not store any time zone data.

    Note:

    The default session time zone is UTC, which means that by default TIMESTAMPTZ values display in UTC.

The difference between these two variants is that TIMESTAMPTZ uses the client's session time zone, while the other simply does not. This behavior extends to functions like now() and extract() on TIMESTAMPTZ values.

New in v19.2: You can use the timezone() and AT TIME ZONE functions to convert a TIMESTAMPTZ into a TIMESTAMP at a specified timezone, or to convert a TIMESTAMP into a TIMESTAMPTZ at a specified timezone.

Best practices

We recommend always using the TIMESTAMPTZ variant because the TIMESTAMP variant can sometimes lead to unexpected behaviors when it ignores a session offset. However, we also recommend you avoid setting a session time for your database.

Aliases

In CockroachDB, the following are aliases:

  • TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE
  • TIMESTAMPTZ, TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE

Syntax

A constant value of type TIMESTAMP/TIMESTAMPTZ can be expressed using an interpreted literal, or a string literal annotated with type TIMESTAMP/TIMESTAMPTZ or coerced to type TIMESTAMP/TIMESTAMPTZ.

TIMESTAMP constants can be expressed using the following string literal formats:

Format Example
Date only TIMESTAMP '2016-01-25'
Date and Time TIMESTAMP '2016-01-25 10:10:10.555555'
ISO 8601 TIMESTAMP '2016-01-25T10:10:10.555555'

To express a TIMESTAMPTZ value (with time zone offset from UTC), use the following format: TIMESTAMPTZ '2016-01-25 10:10:10.555555-05:00'

When it is unambiguous, a simple unannotated string literal can also be automatically interpreted as type TIMESTAMP or TIMESTAMPTZ.

Note that the fractional portion is optional and is rounded to microseconds (6 digits after decimal) for compatibility with the PostgreSQL wire protocol.

Size

A TIMESTAMP/TIMESTAMPTZ column supports values up to 12 bytes in width, but the total storage size is likely to be larger due to CockroachDB metadata.

Examples

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> CREATE TABLE timestamps (a INT PRIMARY KEY, b TIMESTAMPTZ);
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> SHOW COLUMNS FROM timestamps;
+-------------+--------------------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------------+-------------+
| column_name |        data_type         | is_nullable | column_default | generation_expression |   indices   |
+-------------+--------------------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------------+-------------+
| a           | INT                      |    false    | NULL           |                       | {"primary"} |
| b           | TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE |    true     | NULL           |                       | {}          |
+-------------+--------------------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------------+-------------+
(2 rows)
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> INSERT INTO timestamps VALUES (1, TIMESTAMPTZ '2016-03-26 10:10:10-05:00'), (2, TIMESTAMPTZ '2016-03-26');
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> SELECT * FROM timestamps;
+---+---------------------------+
| a |             b             |
+---+---------------------------+
| 1 | 2016-03-26 15:10:10+00:00 |
| 2 | 2016-03-26 00:00:00+00:00 |
+---+---------------------------+
# Note that the first timestamp is UTC-05:00, which is the equivalent of EST.

Supported casting and conversion

TIMESTAMP values can be cast to any of the following data types:

Type Details
DECIMAL Converts to number of seconds since the Unix epoch (Jan. 1, 1970). This is a CockroachDB experimental feature which may be changed without notice.
FLOAT Converts to number of seconds since the Unix epoch (Jan. 1, 1970). This is a CockroachDB experimental feature which may be changed without notice.
TIME Converts to the time portion (HH:MM:SS) of the timestamp
INT Converts to number of seconds since the Unix epoch (Jan. 1, 1970). This is a CockroachDB experimental feature which may be changed without notice.
DATE --
STRING --

See also

Data Types



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