This page shows you how to orchestrate the deployment, management, and monitoring of a secure 3-node CockroachDB cluster in a single Kubernetes cluster, using the StatefulSet feature directly or via the Helm package manager for Kubernetes.

To deploy across multiple Kubernetes clusters in different geographic regions instead, see Kubernetes Multi-Cluster Deployment. Also, for details about potential performance bottlenecks to be aware of when running CockroachDB in Kubernetes and guidance on how to optimize your deployment for better performance, see CockroachDB Performance on Kubernetes.

Before you begin

Before getting started, it's helpful to review some Kubernetes-specific terminology and current limitations.

Kubernetes terminology

Feature Description
node A physical or virtual machine. In this tutorial, you'll create GCE or AWS instances and join them as worker nodes into a single Kubernetes cluster from your local workstation.
pod A pod is a group of one of more Docker containers. In this tutorial, each pod will run on a separate Kubernetes node and include one Docker container running a single CockroachDB node. You'll start with 3 pods and grow to 4.
StatefulSet A StatefulSet is a group of pods treated as stateful units, where each pod has distinguishable network identity and always binds back to the same persistent storage on restart. StatefulSets are considered stable as of Kubernetes version 1.9 after reaching beta in version 1.5.
persistent volume A persistent volume is a piece of networked storage (Persistent Disk on GCE, Elastic Block Store on AWS) mounted into a pod. The lifetime of a persistent volume is decoupled from the lifetime of the pod that's using it, ensuring that each CockroachDB node binds back to the same storage on restart.

This tutorial assumes that dynamic volume provisioning is available. When that is not the case, persistent volume claims need to be created manually.
CSR A CSR, or Certificate Signing Request, is a request to have a TLS certificate signed by the Kubernetes cluster's built-in CA. As each pod is created, it issues a CSR for the CockroachDB node running in the pod, which must be manually checked and approved. The same is true for clients as they connect to the cluster. Note that Kubernetes environments that don't support CSRs, such as Amazon EKS, can use a different certificate authority than the one Kubernetes uses.
RBAC RBAC, or Role-Based Access Control, is the system Kubernetes uses to manage permissions within the cluster. In order to take an action (e.g., get or create) on an API resource (e.g., a pod or CSR), the client must have a Role that allows it to do so. This tutorial creates the RBAC resources necessary for CockroachDB to create and access certificates.

Limitations

Kubernetes version

Kubernetes 1.8 or higher is required in order to use our most up-to-date configuration files. Earlier Kubernetes releases do not support some of the options used in our configuration files. If you need to run on an older version of Kubernetes, we have kept around configuration files that work on older Kubernetes releases in the versioned subdirectories of https://github.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/tree/master/cloud/kubernetes (e.g., v1.7).

Storage

At this time, orchestrations of CockroachDB with Kubernetes use external persistent volumes that are often replicated by the provider. Because CockroachDB already replicates data automatically, this additional layer of replication is unnecessary and can negatively impact performance. High-performance use cases on a private Kubernetes cluster may want to consider a DaemonSet deployment until StatefulSets support node-local storage.

CSR names

When Kubernetes issues a CSR (Certificate Signing Request) to have a node or client certificate signed by the Kubernetes CA, Kubernetes requires the CSR name to start and end with an alphanumeric character and otherwise consist of lowercase alphanumeric characters, -, or .

CSR names contain the StatefulSet or Helm chart name, so if you customize that value, be sure to conform to these naming requirements. For client certificates, CSR names also contain the username of the SQL user for which the certificate is being generated, so be sure SQL usernames also conform to these naming requirements. For example, avoid using the underscore character (_) in these names.

Step 1. Start Kubernetes

Choose whether you want to orchestrate CockroachDB with Kubernetes using the hosted Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) service, the hosted Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS), or manually on Google Compute Engine (GCE) or AWS. The instructions below will change slightly depending on your choice.

Hosted GKE

  1. Complete the Before You Begin steps described in the Google Kubernetes Engine Quickstart documentation.

    This includes installing gcloud, which is used to create and delete Kubernetes Engine clusters, and kubectl, which is the command-line tool used to manage Kubernetes from your workstation.

    Tip:
    The documentation offers the choice of using Google's Cloud Shell product or using a local shell on your machine. Choose to use a local shell if you want to be able to view the CockroachDB Admin UI using the steps in this guide.
  2. From your local workstation, start the Kubernetes cluster:

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    $ gcloud container clusters create cockroachdb --machine-type n1-standard-4
    
    Creating cluster cockroachdb...done.
    

    This creates GKE instances and joins them into a single Kubernetes cluster named cockroachdb. The --machine-type flag tells the node pool to use the n1-standard-4 machine type (4 vCPUs, 15 GB memory), which meets our recommended CPU and memory configuration.

    The process can take a few minutes, so do not move on to the next step until you see a Creating cluster cockroachdb...done message and details about your cluster.

  3. Get the email address associated with your Google Cloud account:

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    $ gcloud info | grep Account
    
    Account: [your.google.cloud.email@example.org]
    
    Warning:

    This command returns your email address in all lowercase. However, in the next step, you must enter the address using the accurate capitalization. For example, if your address is YourName@example.com, you must use YourName@example.com and not yourname@example.com.

  4. Create the RBAC roles CockroachDB needs for running on GKE, using the address from the previous step:

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    $ kubectl create clusterrolebinding $USER-cluster-admin-binding \
    --clusterrole=cluster-admin \
    --user=<your.google.cloud.email@example.org>
    
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/your.username-cluster-admin-binding created
    

Hosted EKS

  1. Complete the steps described in the EKS Getting Started documentation.

    This includes installing and configuring the AWS CLI and eksctl, which is the command-line tool used to create and delete Kubernetes clusters on EKS, and kubectl, which is the command-line tool used to manage Kubernetes from your workstation.

  2. From your local workstation, start the Kubernetes cluster:

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    $ eksctl create cluster \
    --name cockroachdb \
    --nodegroup-name standard-workers \
    --node-type m5.xlarge \
    --nodes 3 \
    --nodes-min 1 \
    --nodes-max 4 \
    --node-ami auto
    

    This creates EKS instances and joins them into a single Kubernetes cluster named cockroachdb. The --node-type flag tells the node pool to use the m5.xlarge instance type (4 vCPUs, 16 GB memory), which meets our recommended CPU and memory configuration.

    Cluster provisioning usually takes between 10 and 15 minutes. Do not move on to the next step until you see a message like [✔] EKS cluster "cockroachdb" in "us-east-1" region is ready and details about your cluster.

  3. Open the AWS CloudFormation console to verify that the stacks eksctl-cockroachdb-cluster and eksctl-cockroachdb-nodegroup-standard-workers were successfully created. Be sure that your region is selected in the console.

Manual GCE

From your local workstation, install prerequisites and start a Kubernetes cluster as described in the Running Kubernetes on Google Compute Engine documentation.

The process includes:

  • Creating a Google Cloud Platform account, installing gcloud, and other prerequisites.
  • Downloading and installing the latest Kubernetes release.
  • Creating GCE instances and joining them into a single Kubernetes cluster.
  • Installing kubectl, the command-line tool used to manage Kubernetes from your workstation.

Manual AWS

From your local workstation, install prerequisites and start a Kubernetes cluster as described in the Running Kubernetes on AWS EC2 documentation.

Step 2. Start CockroachDB

To start your CockroachDB cluster, you can either use our StatefulSet configuration and related files directly, or you can use the Helm package manager for Kubernetes to simplify the process.

Warning:

Secure CockroachDB deployments on Amazon EKS via Helm are not yet supported. In the meantime, use a StatefulSet configuration to deploy on EKS.

Note that when running on Amazon EKS, certificates signed by Kubernetes' built-in CA are not supported, so use this configuration file instead of cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml referenced below. Follow the steps at the top of the file to load externally created certificates into Kubernetes and initialize the CockroachDB cluster.

  1. From your local workstation, use our cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml file to create the StatefulSet that automatically creates 3 pods, each with a CockroachDB node running inside it.

    Download cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml:

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    $ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml
    
    Warning:

    To avoid running out of memory when CockroachDB is not the only pod on a Kubernetes node, you must set memory limits explicitly. This is because CockroachDB does not detect the amount of memory allocated to its pod when run in Kubernetes. Specify this amount by adjusting resources.requests.memory and resources.limits.memory in cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml. Their values should be identical.

    We recommend setting cache and max-sql-memory each to 1/4 of your memory allocation. For example, if you are allocating 8Gi of memory to each CockroachDB node, substitute the following values in this line:

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    --cache 2Gi --max-sql-memory 2Gi
    

    Use the file to create the StatefulSet and start the cluster:

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    $ kubectl create -f cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml
    
    serviceaccount/cockroachdb created
    role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cockroachdb created
    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cockroachdb created
    rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cockroachdb created
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/cockroachdb created
    service/cockroachdb-public created
    service/cockroachdb created
    poddisruptionbudget.policy/cockroachdb-budget created
    statefulset.apps/cockroachdb created
    

    Alternatively, if you'd rather start with a configuration file that has been customized for performance:

    1. Download our performance version of cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml:

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      $ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/performance/cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml
      
    2. Modify the file wherever there is a TODO comment.

    3. Use the file to create the StatefulSet and start the cluster:

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      $ kubectl create -f cockroachdb-statefulset-secure.yaml
      
    Tip:

    If you change the StatefulSet name from the default cockroachdb, be sure to start and end with an alphanumeric character and otherwise use lowercase alphanumeric characters, -, or . so as to comply with CSR naming requirements.

  2. As each pod is created, it issues a Certificate Signing Request, or CSR, to have the node's certificate signed by the Kubernetes CA. You must manually check and approve each node's certificates, at which point the CockroachDB node is started in the pod.

    1. Get the names of the Pending CSRs:

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      $ kubectl get csr
      
      NAME                         AGE   REQUESTOR                                   CONDITION
      default.node.cockroachdb-0   1m    system:serviceaccount:default:cockroachdb   Pending
      default.node.cockroachdb-1   1m    system:serviceaccount:default:cockroachdb   Pending
      default.node.cockroachdb-2   1m    system:serviceaccount:default:cockroachdb   Pending
      ...
      

      If you do not see a Pending CSR, wait a minute and try again.

    2. Examine the CSR for the first pod:

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      $ kubectl describe csr default.node.cockroachdb-0
      
      Name:               default.node.cockroachdb-0
      Labels:             <none>
      Annotations:        <none>
      CreationTimestamp:  Thu, 09 Nov 2017 13:39:37 -0500
      Requesting User:    system:serviceaccount:default:cockroachdb
      Status:             Pending
      Subject:
        Common Name:    node
        Serial Number:
        Organization:   Cockroach
      Subject Alternative Names:
               DNS Names:     localhost
                              cockroachdb-0.cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local
                              cockroachdb-0.cockroachdb
                              cockroachdb-public
                              cockroachdb-public.default.svc.cluster.local
               IP Addresses:  127.0.0.1
                              10.48.1.6
      Events:  <none>
      
    3. If everything looks correct, approve the CSR for the first pod:

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      $ kubectl certificate approve default.node.cockroachdb-0
      
      certificatesigningrequest "default.node.cockroachdb-0" approved
      
    4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the other 2 pods.

  3. Initialize the CockroachDB cluster:

    1. Confirm that three pods are Running successfully. Note that they will not be considered Ready until after the cluster has been initialized:

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      $ kubectl get pods
      
      NAME            READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      cockroachdb-0   0/1       Running   0          2m
      cockroachdb-1   0/1       Running   0          2m
      cockroachdb-2   0/1       Running   0          2m
      
    2. Confirm that the persistent volumes and corresponding claims were created successfully for all three pods:

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      $ kubectl get persistentvolumes
      
      NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                           STORAGECLASS   REASON   AGE
      pvc-9e435563-fb2e-11e9-a65c-42010a8e0fca   100Gi      RWO            Delete           Bound    default/datadir-cockroachdb-0   standard                51m
      pvc-9e47d820-fb2e-11e9-a65c-42010a8e0fca   100Gi      RWO            Delete           Bound    default/datadir-cockroachdb-1   standard                51m
      pvc-9e4f57f0-fb2e-11e9-a65c-42010a8e0fca   100Gi      RWO            Delete           Bound    default/datadir-cockroachdb-2   standard                51m
      
    3. Use our cluster-init-secure.yaml file to perform a one-time initialization that joins the CockroachDB nodes into a single cluster:

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      $ kubectl create \
      -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/cluster-init-secure.yaml
      
      job.batch/cluster-init-secure created
      
    4. Approve the CSR for the one-off pod from which cluster initialization happens:

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      $ kubectl certificate approve default.client.root
      
      certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/default.client.root approved
      
    5. Confirm that cluster initialization has completed successfully. The job should be considered successful and the Kubernetes pods should soon be considered Ready:

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      $ kubectl get job cluster-init-secure
      
      NAME                  COMPLETIONS   DURATION   AGE
      cluster-init-secure   1/1           23s        35s
      
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      $ kubectl get pods
      
      NAME                        READY     STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
      cluster-init-secure-q8s7v   0/1       Completed   0          55s
      cockroachdb-0               1/1       Running     0          3m
      cockroachdb-1               1/1       Running     0          3m
      cockroachdb-2               1/1       Running     0          3m
      
Tip:

The StatefulSet configuration sets all CockroachDB nodes to log to stderr, so if you ever need access to a pod/node's logs to troubleshoot, use kubectl logs <podname> rather than checking the log on the persistent volume.

  1. Install the Helm client.

  2. Install the Helm server, known as Tiller.

    In the likely case that your Kubernetes cluster uses RBAC (e.g., if you are using GKE), you first need to create RBAC resources to grant Tiller access to the Kubernetes API:

    1. Create a rbac-config.yaml file to define a role and service account:

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      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ServiceAccount
      metadata:
        name: tiller
        namespace: kube-system
      ---
      apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
      kind: ClusterRoleBinding
      metadata:
        name: tiller
      roleRef:
        apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
        kind: ClusterRole
        name: cluster-admin
      subjects:
        - kind: ServiceAccount
          name: tiller
          namespace: kube-system
      
    2. Create the service account:

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      $ kubectl create -f rbac-config.yaml
      
      serviceaccount/tiller created
      clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/tiller created
      
    3. Start the Helm server and install Tiller:

      Note:

      Tiller does not currently support Kubernetes 1.16.0. The following command includes a workaround to install Tiller for use with 1.16.0.

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      $ helm init --service-account tiller --override spec.selector.matchLabels.'name'='tiller',spec.selector.matchLabels.'app'='helm' --output yaml | sed 's@apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1@apiVersion: apps/v1@' | kubectl apply -f -
      
      deployment.apps/tiller-deploy created
      service/tiller-deploy created
      
  3. Install the CockroachDB Helm chart, providing a "release" name to identify and track this particular deployment of the chart and setting the Secure.Enabled parameter to true:

    Note:

    This tutorial uses my-release as the release name. If you use a different value, be sure to adjust the release name in subsequent commands. Also be sure to start and end the name with an alphanumeric character and otherwise use lowercase alphanumeric characters, -, or . so as to comply with CSR naming requirements.

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    $ helm install --name my-release --set Secure.Enabled=true,Resources.requests.memory="<your memory allocation>",CacheSize="<your cache size>",MaxSQLMemory="<your SQL memory size>" stable/cockroachdb
    

    Behind the scenes, this command uses our cockroachdb-statefulset.yaml file to create the StatefulSet that automatically creates 3 pods, each with a CockroachDB node running inside it, where each pod has distinguishable network identity and always binds back to the same persistent storage on restart.

    Warning:

    To avoid running out of memory when CockroachDB is not the only pod on a Kubernetes node, you must set memory limits explicitly. This is because CockroachDB does not detect the amount of memory allocated to its pod when run in Kubernetes.

    We recommend setting CacheSize and MaxSQLMemory each to 1/4 of the memory allocation specified in your Resources.requests.memory parameter. For example, if you are allocating 8GiB of memory to each CockroachDB node, use the following values with the --set flag in the helm install command:

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    Requests.resources.memory="8GiB",CacheSize="2GiB",MaxSQLMemory="2GiB"
    
    Note:

    You can customize your deployment by passing additional configuration parameters to helm install using the --set key=value[,key=value] flag. For a production cluster, you should consider modifying the Storage and StorageClass parameters. This chart defaults to 100 GiB of disk space per pod, but you may want more or less depending on your use case, and the default persistent volume StorageClass in your environment may not be what you want for a database (e.g., on GCE and Azure the default is not SSD).

  4. As each pod is created, it issues a Certificate Signing Request, or CSR, to have the CockroachDB node's certificate signed by the Kubernetes CA. You must manually check and approve each node's certificate, at which point the CockroachDB node is started in the pod.

    1. Get the names of the Pending CSRs:

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      $ kubectl get csr
      
      NAME                                    AGE       REQUESTOR                                              CONDITION
      default.client.root                     21s       system:serviceaccount:default:my-release-cockroachdb   Pending
      default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0   15s       system:serviceaccount:default:my-release-cockroachdb   Pending
      default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1   16s       system:serviceaccount:default:my-release-cockroachdb   Pending
      default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2   15s       system:serviceaccount:default:my-release-cockroachdb   Pending
      ...
      

      If you do not see a Pending CSR, wait a minute and try again.

    2. Examine the CSR for the first pod:

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      $ kubectl describe csr default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0
      
      Name:               default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0
      Labels:             <none>
      Annotations:        <none>
      CreationTimestamp:  Mon, 10 Dec 2018 05:36:35 -0500
      Requesting User:    system:serviceaccount:default:my-release-cockroachdb
      Status:             Pending
      Subject:
        Common Name:    node
        Serial Number:
        Organization:   Cockroach
      Subject Alternative Names:
               DNS Names:     localhost
                              my-release-cockroachdb-0.my-release-cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local
                              my-release-cockroachdb-0.my-release-cockroachdb
                              my-release-cockroachdb-public
                              my-release-cockroachdb-public.default.svc.cluster.local
               IP Addresses:  127.0.0.1
      Events:  <none>
      
    3. If everything looks correct, approve the CSR for the first pod:

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      $ kubectl certificate approve default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0
      
      certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0 approved
      
    4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the other 2 pods.

  5. Confirm that three pods are Running successfully:

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    $ kubectl get pods
    
    NAME                                READY     STATUS     RESTARTS   AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-0            0/1       Running    0          6m
    my-release-cockroachdb-1            0/1       Running    0          6m
    my-release-cockroachdb-2            0/1       Running    0          6m
    my-release-cockroachdb-init-hxzsc   0/1       Init:0/1   0          6m
    
  6. Approve the CSR for the one-off pod from which cluster initialization happens:

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    $ kubectl certificate approve default.client.root
    
    certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/default.client.root approved
    
  7. Confirm that CockroachDB cluster initialization has completed successfully, with the pods for CockroachDB showing 1/1 under READY and the pod for initialization showing COMPLETED under STATUS:

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    $ kubectl get pods
    
    NAME                                READY     STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-0            1/1       Running     0          8m
    my-release-cockroachdb-1            1/1       Running     0          8m
    my-release-cockroachdb-2            1/1       Running     0          8m
    my-release-cockroachdb-init-hxzsc   0/1       Completed   0          1h
    
  8. Confirm that the persistent volumes and corresponding claims were created successfully for all three pods:

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    $ kubectl get persistentvolumes
    
    NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS    CLAIM                                      STORAGECLASS   REASON    AGE
    pvc-71019b3a-fc67-11e8-a606-080027ba45e5   100Gi      RWO            Delete           Bound     default/datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0   standard                 11m
    pvc-7108e172-fc67-11e8-a606-080027ba45e5   100Gi      RWO            Delete           Bound     default/datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-1   standard                 11m
    pvc-710dcb66-fc67-11e8-a606-080027ba45e5   100Gi      RWO            Delete           Bound     default/datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-2   standard                 11m    
    
Tip:

The StatefulSet configuration sets all CockroachDB nodes to log to stderr, so if you ever need access to a pod/node's logs to troubleshoot, use kubectl logs <podname> rather than checking the log on the persistent volume.

Step 3. Use the built-in SQL client

To use the built-in SQL client, you need to launch a pod that runs indefinitely with the cockroach binary inside it, get a shell into the pod, and then start the built-in SQL client.

  1. From your local workstation, use our client-secure.yaml file to launch a pod and keep it running indefinitely:

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    $ kubectl create \
    -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/client-secure.yaml
    
    pod/cockroachdb-client-secure created
    
    Note:

    The pod uses the root client certificate created earlier to initialize the cluster, so there's no CSR approval required. If you issue client certificates for other users, however, be sure your SQL usernames contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, -, or . so as to comply with CSR naming requirements.

  2. Get a shell into the pod and start the CockroachDB built-in SQL client:

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    $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
    -- ./cockroach sql \
    --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
    --host=cockroachdb-public
    
    # Welcome to the cockroach SQL interface.
    # All statements must be terminated by a semicolon.
    # To exit: CTRL + D.
    #
    # Client version: CockroachDB CCL v19.1.0 (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu, built 2019/04/29 18:36:40, go1.11.6)
    # Server version: CockroachDB CCL v19.1.0 (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu, built 2019/04/29 18:36:40, go1.11.6)
    
    # Cluster ID: 256a8705-e348-4e3a-ab12-e1aba96857e4
    #
    # Enter \? for a brief introduction.
    #
    root@cockroachdb-public:26257/defaultdb>
    
  3. Run some basic CockroachDB SQL statements:

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    > CREATE DATABASE bank;
    
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    > CREATE TABLE bank.accounts (id INT PRIMARY KEY, balance DECIMAL);
    
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    > INSERT INTO bank.accounts VALUES (1, 1000.50);
    
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    > SELECT * FROM bank.accounts;
    
      id | balance
    +----+---------+
       1 | 1000.50
    (1 row)
    
  4. Create a user with a password:

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    > CREATE USER roach WITH PASSWORD 'Q7gc8rEdS';
    

    You will need this username and password to access the Admin UI later.

  5. Exit the SQL shell and pod:

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    > \q
    
  1. From your local workstation, use our client-secure.yaml file to launch a pod and keep it running indefinitely.

    1. Download the file:

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      $ curl -OOOOOOOOO \
      https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/client-secure.yaml
      
    2. In the file, change serviceAccountName: cockroachdb to serviceAccountName: my-release-cockroachdb.

    3. Use the file to launch a pod and keep it running indefinitely:

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      $ kubectl create -f client-secure.yaml
      
      pod "cockroachdb-client-secure" created
      
      Note:

      The pod uses the root client certificate created earlier to initialize the cluster, so there's no CSR approval required. If you issue client certificates for other users, however, be sure your SQL usernames contain only lowercase alphanumeric characters, -, or . so as to comply with CSR naming requirements.

  2. Get a shell into the pod and start the CockroachDB built-in SQL client:

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    $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
    -- ./cockroach sql \
    --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
    --host=my-release-cockroachdb-public
    
    # Welcome to the cockroach SQL interface.
    # All statements must be terminated by a semicolon.
    # To exit: CTRL + D.
    #
    # Client version: CockroachDB CCL v19.1.0 (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu, built 2019/04/29 18:36:40, go1.11.6)
    # Server version: CockroachDB CCL v19.1.0 (x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu, built 2019/04/29 18:36:40, go1.11.6)
    
    # Cluster ID: 256a8705-e348-4e3a-ab12-e1aba96857e4
    #
    # Enter \? for a brief introduction.
    #
    root@my-release-cockroachdb-public:26257/defaultdb>
    
  3. Run some basic CockroachDB SQL statements:

    copy
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    > CREATE DATABASE bank;
    
    copy
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    > CREATE TABLE bank.accounts (id INT PRIMARY KEY, balance DECIMAL);
    
    copy
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    > INSERT INTO bank.accounts VALUES (1, 1000.50);
    
    copy
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    > SELECT * FROM bank.accounts;
    
      id | balance
    +----+---------+
       1 | 1000.50
    (1 row)
    
  4. Create a user with a password:

    copy
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    > CREATE USER roach WITH PASSWORD 'Q7gc8rEdS';
    

    You will need this username and password to access the Admin UI later.

  5. Exit the SQL shell and pod:

    copy
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    > \q
    
Tip:

This pod will continue running indefinitely, so any time you need to reopen the built-in SQL client or run any other cockroach client commands (e.g., cockroach node), repeat step 2 using the appropriate cockroach command.

If you'd prefer to delete the pod and recreate it when needed, run kubectl delete pod cockroachdb-client-secure.

Step 4. Access the Admin UI

To access the cluster's Admin UI:

  1. In a new terminal window, port-forward from your local machine to one of the pods:

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    $ kubectl port-forward cockroachdb-0 8080
    
    copy
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    $ kubectl port-forward my-release-cockroachdb-0 8080
    
    Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:8080 -> 8080
    
    Note:
    The port-forward command must be run on the same machine as the web browser in which you want to view the Admin UI. If you have been running these commands from a cloud instance or other non-local shell, you will not be able to view the UI without configuring kubectl locally and running the above port-forward command on your local machine.
  2. Go to https://localhost:8080 and log in with the username and password you created earlier.

  3. In the UI, verify that the cluster is running as expected:

    • Click View nodes list on the right to ensure that all nodes successfully joined the cluster.
    • Click the Databases tab on the left to verify that bank is listed.

Step 5. Simulate node failure

Based on the replicas: 3 line in the StatefulSet configuration, Kubernetes ensures that three pods/nodes are running at all times. When a pod/node fails, Kubernetes automatically creates another pod/node with the same network identity and persistent storage.

To see this in action:

  1. Kill one of CockroachDB nodes:

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    $ kubectl delete pod cockroachdb-2
    
    pod "cockroachdb-2" deleted
    
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    $ kubectl delete pod my-release-cockroachdb-2
    
    pod "my-release-cockroachdb-2" deleted
    
  2. In the Admin UI, the Cluster Overview will soon show one node as Suspect. As Kubernetes auto-restarts the node, watch how the node once again becomes healthy.

  3. Back in the terminal, verify that the pod was automatically restarted:

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    $ kubectl get pod cockroachdb-2
    
    NAME            READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    cockroachdb-2   1/1       Running   0          12s
    
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    $ kubectl get pod my-release-cockroachdb-2
    
    NAME                       READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-2   1/1       Running   0          44s
    

Step 6. Monitor the cluster

Despite CockroachDB's various built-in safeguards against failure, it is critical to actively monitor the overall health and performance of a cluster running in production and to create alerting rules that promptly send notifications when there are events that require investigation or intervention.

Configure Prometheus

Every node of a CockroachDB cluster exports granular timeseries metrics formatted for easy integration with Prometheus, an open source tool for storing, aggregating, and querying timeseries data. This section shows you how to orchestrate Prometheus as part of your Kubernetes cluster and pull these metrics into Prometheus for external monitoring.

This guidance is based on CoreOS's Prometheus Operator, which allows a Prometheus instance to be managed using native Kubernetes concepts.

Note:

If you're on Hosted GKE, before starting, make sure the email address associated with your Google Cloud account is part of the cluster-admin RBAC group, as shown in Step 1. Start Kubernetes.

  1. From your local workstation, edit the cockroachdb service to add the prometheus: cockroachdb label:

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    $ kubectl label svc cockroachdb prometheus=cockroachdb
    
    service/cockroachdb labeled
    

    This ensures that there is a prometheus job and monitoring data only for the cockroachdb service, not for the cockroach-public service.

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    $ kubectl label svc my-release-cockroachdb prometheus=cockroachdb
    
    service/my-release-cockroachdb labeled
    

    This ensures that there is a prometheus job and monitoring data only for the my-release-cockroachdb service, not for the my-release-cockroach-public service.

  2. Install CoreOS's Prometheus Operator:

    copy
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    $ kubectl apply \
    -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/prometheus-operator/release-0.20/bundle.yaml
    
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/prometheus-operator created
    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/prometheus-operator created
    serviceaccount/prometheus-operator created
    deployment.apps/prometheus-operator created
    
  3. Confirm that the prometheus-operator has started:

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    $ kubectl get deploy prometheus-operator
    
    NAME                  READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    prometheus-operator   1/1     1            1           27s
    
  4. Use our prometheus.yaml file to create the various objects necessary to run a Prometheus instance:

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    $ kubectl apply \
    -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/prometheus/prometheus.yaml
    
    serviceaccount/prometheus created
    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/prometheus created
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/prometheus created
    servicemonitor.monitoring.coreos.com/cockroachdb created
    prometheus.monitoring.coreos.com/cockroachdb created
    
  5. Access the Prometheus UI locally and verify that CockroachDB is feeding data into Prometheus:

    1. Port-forward from your local machine to the pod running Prometheus:

      copy
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      $ kubectl port-forward prometheus-cockroachdb-0 9090
      
    2. Go to http://localhost:9090 in your browser.

    3. To verify that each CockroachDB node is connected to Prometheus, go to Status > Targets. The screen should look like this:

      Prometheus targets

    4. To verify that data is being collected, go to Graph, enter the sys_uptime variable in the field, click Execute, and then click the Graph tab. The screen should like this:

      Prometheus graph

    Tip:

    Prometheus auto-completes CockroachDB time series metrics for you, but if you want to see a full listing, with descriptions, port-forward as described in Access the Admin UI and then point your browser to http://localhost:8080/_status/vars.

    For more details on using the Prometheus UI, see their official documentation.

Configure Alertmanager

Active monitoring helps you spot problems early, but it is also essential to send notifications when there are events that require investigation or intervention. This section shows you how to use Alertmanager and CockroachDB's starter alerting rules to do this.

  1. Download our alertmanager-config.yaml configuration file:

    copy
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    $ curl -OOOOOOOOO \
    https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/prometheus/alertmanager-config.yaml
    
  2. Edit the alertmanager-config.yaml file to specify the desired receivers for notifications. Initially, the file contains a dummy web hook.

  3. Add this configuration to the Kubernetes cluster as a secret, renaming it to alertmanager.yaml and labelling it to make it easier to find:

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    $ kubectl create secret generic alertmanager-cockroachdb \
    --from-file=alertmanager.yaml=alertmanager-config.yaml
    
    secret/alertmanager-cockroachdb created
    
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    $ kubectl label secret alertmanager-cockroachdb app=cockroachdb
    
    secret/alertmanager-cockroachdb labeled
    
    Warning:

    The name of the secret, alertmanager-cockroachdb, must match the name used in the altermanager.yaml file. If they differ, the Alertmanager instance will start without configuration, and nothing will happen.

  4. Use our alertmanager.yaml file to create the various objects necessary to run an Alertmanager instance, including a ClusterIP service so that Prometheus can forward alerts:

    copy
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    $ kubectl apply \
    -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/prometheus/alertmanager.yaml
    
    alertmanager.monitoring.coreos.com/cockroachdb created
    service/alertmanager-cockroachdb created
    
  5. Verify that Alertmanager is running:

    1. Port-forward from your local machine to the pod running Alertmanager:

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      $ kubectl port-forward alertmanager-cockroachdb-0 9093
      
    2. Go to http://localhost:9093 in your browser. The screen should look like this:

      Alertmanager

  6. Ensure that the Alertmanagers are visible to Prometheus by opening http://localhost:9090/status. The screen should look like this:

    Alertmanager

  7. Add CockroachDB's starter alerting rules:

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    $ kubectl apply \
    -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cockroachdb/cockroach/master/cloud/kubernetes/prometheus/alert-rules.yaml
    
    prometheusrule.monitoring.coreos.com/prometheus-cockroachdb-rules created
    
  8. Ensure that the rules are visible to Prometheus by opening http://localhost:9090/rules. The screen should look like this:

    Alertmanager

  9. Verify that the TestAlertManager example alert is firing by opening http://localhost:9090/alerts. The screen should look like this:

    Alertmanager

  10. To remove the example alert:

    1. Use the kubectl edit command to open the rules for editing:

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      $ kubectl edit prometheusrules prometheus-cockroachdb-rules
      
    2. Remove the dummy.rules block and save the file:

      - name: rules/dummy.rules
        rules:
        - alert: TestAlertManager
          expr: vector(1)
      

Step 7. Maintain the cluster

Add nodes

Your Kubernetes cluster includes 3 worker nodes, or instances, that can run pods. A CockroachDB node runs in each pod. As recommended in our production best practices, you should ensure that two pods are not placed on the same worker node.

To do this, add a new worker node and then edit your StatefulSet configuration to add another pod for the new CockroachDB node.

  1. Add a worker node, bringing the total from 3 to 4:

  2. Add a pod for the new CockroachDB node:

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    $ kubectl scale statefulset cockroachdb --replicas=4
    
    statefulset.apps/cockroachdb scaled
    
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    $ helm upgrade \
    my-release \
    stable/cockroachdb \
    --set Replicas=4 \
    --reuse-values
    
    Release "my-release" has been upgraded. Happy Helming!
    LAST DEPLOYED: Tue May 14 14:06:43 2019
    NAMESPACE: default
    STATUS: DEPLOYED
    
    RESOURCES:
    ==> v1beta1/PodDisruptionBudget
    NAME                           AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-budget  51m
    
    ==> v1/Pod(related)
    
    NAME                               READY  STATUS     RESTARTS  AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-0           1/1    Running    0         38m
    my-release-cockroachdb-1           1/1    Running    0         39m
    my-release-cockroachdb-2           1/1    Running    0         39m
    my-release-cockroachdb-3           0/1    Pending    0         0s
    my-release-cockroachdb-init-nwjkh  0/1    Completed  0         39m
    
    ...
    
  3. Get the name of the Pending CSR for the new pod:

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    $ kubectl get csr
    
    NAME                                                   AGE       REQUESTOR                               CONDITION
    default.client.root                                    1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-0                             1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-1                             1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-2                             1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-3                             2m        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Pending
    node-csr-0Xmb4UTVAWMEnUeGbW4KX1oL4XV_LADpkwjrPtQjlZ4   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-NiN8oDsLhxn0uwLTWa0RWpMUgJYnwcFxB984mwjjYsY   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-aU78SxyU69pDK57aj6txnevr7X-8M3XgX9mTK0Hso6o   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    ...
    
    NAME                                                   AGE       REQUESTOR                               CONDITION
    default.client.root                                    1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0                  1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1                  1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2                  1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3                  2m        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Pending
    node-csr-0Xmb4UTVAWMEnUeGbW4KX1oL4XV_LADpkwjrPtQjlZ4   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-NiN8oDsLhxn0uwLTWa0RWpMUgJYnwcFxB984mwjjYsY   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-aU78SxyU69pDK57aj6txnevr7X-8M3XgX9mTK0Hso6o   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    ...
    

    If you do not see a Pending CSR, wait a minute and try again.

  4. Examine the CSR for the new pod:

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    $ kubectl describe csr default.node.cockroachdb-3
    
    Name:               default.node.cockroachdb-3
    Labels:             <none>
    Annotations:        <none>
    CreationTimestamp:  Wed, 30 Oct 2019 13:46:52 -0400
    Requesting User:    system:serviceaccount:default:cockroachdb
    Status:             Pending
    Subject:
      Common Name:    node
      Serial Number:
      Organization:   Cockroach
    Subject Alternative Names:
             DNS Names:     localhost
                            cockroachdb-3.cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local
                            cockroachdb-3.cockroachdb
                            cockroachdb-public
                            cockroachdb-public.default.svc.cluster.local
             IP Addresses:  127.0.0.1
    Events:  <none>
    
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    $ kubectl describe csr default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3
    
    Name:               default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3
    Labels:             <none>
    Annotations:        <none>
    CreationTimestamp:  Thu, 09 Nov 2017 13:39:37 -0500
    Requesting User:    system:serviceaccount:default:default
    Status:             Pending
    Subject:
      Common Name:    node
      Serial Number:
      Organization:   Cockroach
    Subject Alternative Names:
             DNS Names:     localhost
                            my-release-cockroachdb-3.my-release-cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local
                            my-release-cockroachdb-3.my-release-cockroachdb
                            my-release-cockroachdb-public
                            my-release-cockroachdb-public.default.svc.cluster.local
             IP Addresses:  127.0.0.1
                            10.48.1.6
    Events:  <none>
    
  5. If everything looks correct, approve the CSR for the new pod:

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    $ kubectl certificate approve default.node.cockroachdb-3
    
    certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/default.node.cockroachdb-3 approved
    
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    $ kubectl certificate approve default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3
    
    certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3 approved
    
  6. Verify that the new pod started successfully:

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    $ kubectl get pods
    
    NAME                        READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    cockroachdb-0               1/1       Running   0          51m
    cockroachdb-1               1/1       Running   0          47m
    cockroachdb-2               1/1       Running   0          3m
    cockroachdb-3               1/1       Running   0          1m
    cockroachdb-client-secure   1/1       Running   0          15m
    ...
    
    NAME                        READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-0    1/1       Running   0          51m
    my-release-cockroachdb-1    1/1       Running   0          47m
    my-release-cockroachdb-2    1/1       Running   0          3m
    my-release-cockroachdb-3    1/1       Running   0          1m
    cockroachdb-client-secure   1/1       Running   0          15m
    ...
    
  7. Back in the Admin UI, view Node List to ensure that the fourth node successfully joined the cluster.

Remove nodes

To safely remove a node from your cluster, you must first decommission the node and only then adjust the Replicas value of your StatefulSet configuration to permanently remove it. This sequence is important because the decommissioning process lets a node finish in-flight requests, rejects any new requests, and transfers all range replicas and range leases off the node.

Warning:

If you remove nodes without first telling CockroachDB to decommission them, you may cause data or even cluster unavailability. For more details about how this works and what to consider before removing nodes, see Decommission Nodes.

  1. Get a shell into the cockroachdb-client-secure pod you created earlier and use the cockroach node status command to get the internal IDs of nodes:

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    $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
    -- ./cockroach node status \
    --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
    --host=cockroachdb-public
    
      id |               address                                     | build  |            started_at            |            updated_at            | is_available | is_live
    +----+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+--------------+---------+
       1 | cockroachdb-0.cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 16:04:36.486082+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:24.587454+00:00 | true         | true
       2 | cockroachdb-2.cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 16:55:03.880406+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:23.469302+00:00 | true         | true
       3 | cockroachdb-1.cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 16:04:41.383588+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:25.030175+00:00 | true         | true
       4 | cockroachdb-3.cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 17:31:19.990784+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:26.041686+00:00 | true         | true
    (4 rows)
    
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    $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
    -- ./cockroach node status \
    --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
    --host=my-release-cockroachdb-public
    
      id |                                     address                                     | build  |            started_at            |            updated_at            | is_available | is_live
    +----+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+----------------------------------+----------------------------------+--------------+---------+
       1 | my-release-cockroachdb-0.my-release-cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 16:04:36.486082+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:24.587454+00:00 | true         | true
       2 | my-release-cockroachdb-2.my-release-cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 16:55:03.880406+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:23.469302+00:00 | true         | true
       3 | my-release-cockroachdb-1.my-release-cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 16:04:41.383588+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:25.030175+00:00 | true         | true
       4 | my-release-cockroachdb-3.my-release-cockroachdb.default.svc.cluster.local:26257 | v19.2.1 | 2018-11-29 17:31:19.990784+00:00 | 2018-11-29 18:24:26.041686+00:00 | true         | true
    (4 rows)
    

    The pod uses the root client certificate created earlier to initialize the cluster, so there's no CSR approval required.

  2. Note the ID of the node with the highest number in its address (in this case, the address including cockroachdb-3) and use the cockroach node decommission command to decommission it:

    Note:

    It's important to decommission the node with the highest number in its address because, when you reduce the replica count, Kubernetes will remove the pod for that node.

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    $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
    -- ./cockroach node decommission <node ID> \
    --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
    --host=cockroachdb-public
    
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    $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
    -- ./cockroach node decommission <node ID> \
    --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
    --host=my-release-cockroachdb-public
    

    You'll then see the decommissioning status print to stderr as it changes:

     id | is_live | replicas | is_decommissioning | is_draining  
    +---+---------+----------+--------------------+-------------+
      4 |  true   |       73 |        true        |    false     
    (1 row)
    

    Once the node has been fully decommissioned and stopped, you'll see a confirmation:

     id | is_live | replicas | is_decommissioning | is_draining  
    +---+---------+----------+--------------------+-------------+
      4 |  true   |        0 |        true        |    false     
    (1 row)
    
    No more data reported on target nodes. Please verify cluster health before removing the nodes.
    
  3. Once the node has been decommissioned, remove a pod from your StatefulSet:

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    $ kubectl scale statefulset cockroachdb --replicas=3
    
    statefulset.apps/cockroachdb scaled
    
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    $ helm upgrade \
    my-release \
    stable/cockroachdb \
    --set Replicas=3 \
    --reuse-values
    

Expand disk size

You can expand certain types of persistent volumes (including GCE Persistent Disk and Amazon Elastic Block Store) by editing their persistent volume claims. Increasing disk size is often beneficial for CockroachDB performance. Read our Kubernetes performance guide for guidance on disks.

  1. Get the persistent volume claims for the volumes:

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    $ kubectl get pvc
    
    NAME                               STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0   Bound    pvc-75dadd4c-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       17m
    datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-1   Bound    pvc-75e143ca-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       17m
    datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-2   Bound    pvc-75ef409a-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       17m
    
    NAME                    STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    datadir-cockroachdb-0   Bound    pvc-75dadd4c-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       17m
    datadir-cockroachdb-1   Bound    pvc-75e143ca-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       17m
    datadir-cockroachdb-2   Bound    pvc-75ef409a-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       17m
    
  2. In order to expand a persistent volume claim, AllowVolumeExpansion in its storage class must be true. Examine the storage class:

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    $ kubectl describe storageclass standard
    
    Name:                  standard
    IsDefaultClass:        Yes
    Annotations:           storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class=true
    Provisioner:           kubernetes.io/gce-pd
    Parameters:            type=pd-standard
    AllowVolumeExpansion:  False
    MountOptions:          <none>
    ReclaimPolicy:         Delete
    VolumeBindingMode:     Immediate
    Events:                <none>
    

    If necessary, edit the storage class:

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    $ kubectl patch storageclass standard -p '{"allowVolumeExpansion": true}'
    
    storageclass.storage.k8s.io/standard patched
    
  3. Edit one of the persistent volume claims to request more space:

    Note:

    The requested storage value must be larger than the previous value. You cannot use this method to decrease the disk size.

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    $ kubectl patch pvc datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0 -p '{"spec": {"resources": {"requests": {"storage": "200Gi"}}}}'
    
    persistentvolumeclaim/datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0 patched
    
    copy
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    $ kubectl patch pvc datadir-cockroachdb-0 -p '{"spec": {"resources": {"requests": {"storage": "200Gi"}}}}'
    
    persistentvolumeclaim/datadir-cockroachdb-0 patched
    
  4. Check the capacity of the persistent volume claim:

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    $ kubectl get pvc datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0
    
    NAME                               STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0   Bound    pvc-75dadd4c-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       18m
    
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    $ kubectl get pvc datadir-cockroachdb-0
    
    NAME                    STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    datadir-cockroachdb-0   Bound    pvc-75dadd4c-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   100Gi      RWO            standard       18m
    

    If the PVC capacity has not changed, this may be because AllowVolumeExpansion was initially set to false or because the volume has a file system that has to be expanded. You will need to start or restart a pod in order to have it reflect the new capacity.

    Tip:

    Running kubectl get pv will display the persistent volumes with their requested capacity and not their actual capacity. This can be misleading, so it's best to use kubectl get pvc.

  5. Examine the persistent volume claim. If the volume has a file system, you will see a FileSystemResizePending condition with an accompanying message:

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    $ kubectl describe pvc datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0
    
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    $ kubectl describe pvc datadir-cockroachdb-0
    
    Waiting for user to (re-)start a pod to finish file system resize of volume on node.
    
  6. Delete the corresponding pod to restart it:

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    $ kubectl delete pod my-release-cockroachdb-0
    
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    $ kubectl delete pod cockroachdb-0
    

    The FileSystemResizePending condition and message will be removed.

  7. View the updated persistent volume claim:

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    $ kubectl get pvc datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0
    
    NAME                               STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    datadir-my-release-cockroachdb-0   Bound    pvc-75dadd4c-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   200Gi      RWO            standard       20m
    
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    $ kubectl get pvc datadir-cockroachdb-0
    
    NAME                    STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    datadir-cockroachdb-0   Bound    pvc-75dadd4c-01a1-11ea-b065-42010a8e00cb   200Gi      RWO            standard       20m
    
  8. The CockroachDB cluster needs to be expanded one node at a time. Repeat steps 3 - 6 to increase the capacities of the remaining volumes by the same amount.

Upgrade the cluster

As new versions of CockroachDB are released, it's strongly recommended to upgrade to newer versions in order to pick up bug fixes, performance improvements, and new features. The general CockroachDB upgrade documentation provides best practices for how to prepare for and execute upgrades of CockroachDB clusters, but the mechanism of actually stopping and restarting processes in Kubernetes is somewhat special.

Kubernetes knows how to carry out a safe rolling upgrade process of the CockroachDB nodes. When you tell it to change the Docker image used in the CockroachDB StatefulSet, Kubernetes will go one-by-one, stopping a node, restarting it with the new image, and waiting for it to be ready to receive client requests before moving on to the next one. For more information, see the Kubernetes documentation.

  1. Decide how the upgrade will be finalized.

    Note:

    This step is relevant only when upgrading from v19.1.x to v19.2. For upgrades within the v19.2.x series, skip this step.

    By default, after all nodes are running the new version, the upgrade process will be auto-finalized. This will enable certain performance improvements and bug fixes introduced in v19.2. After finalization, however, it will no longer be possible to perform a downgrade to v19.1. In the event of a catastrophic failure or corruption, the only option will be to start a new cluster using the old binary and then restore from one of the backups created prior to performing the upgrade.

    We recommend disabling auto-finalization so you can monitor the stability and performance of the upgraded cluster before finalizing the upgrade:

    1. Get a shell into the pod with the cockroach binary created earlier and start the CockroachDB built-in SQL client:

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      $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \-- ./cockroach sql \
      --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
      --host=cockroachdb-public
      
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      $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
      -- ./cockroach sql \
      --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
      --host=my-release-cockroachdb-public
      
    2. Set the cluster.preserve_downgrade_option cluster setting:

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      > SET CLUSTER SETTING cluster.preserve_downgrade_option = '19.1';
      
    3. Exit the SQL shell and delete the temporary pod:

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      > \q
      
  2. Kick off the upgrade process by changing the desired Docker image:

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    $ kubectl patch statefulset cockroachdb \
    --type='json' \
    -p='[{"op": "replace", "path": "/spec/template/spec/containers/0/image", "value":"cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1"}]'
    
    statefulset.apps/cockroachdb patched
    
    Note:

    For Helm, you must remove the cluster initialization job from when the cluster was created before the cluster version can be changed.

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    $ kubectl delete job my-release-cockroachdb-init
    
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    $ helm upgrade \
    my-release \
    stable/cockroachdb \
    --set ImageTag=v19.2.1 \
    --reuse-values
    
  3. If you then check the status of your cluster's pods, you should see them being restarted:

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    $ kubectl get pods
    
    NAME            READY     STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE
    cockroachdb-0   1/1       Running       0          2m
    cockroachdb-1   1/1       Running       0          2m
    cockroachdb-2   1/1       Running       0          2m
    cockroachdb-3   0/1       Terminating   0          1m
    ...
    
    NAME                                READY     STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
    my-release-cockroachdb-0            1/1       Running             0          2m
    my-release-cockroachdb-1            1/1       Running             0          3m
    my-release-cockroachdb-2            1/1       Running             0          3m
    my-release-cockroachdb-3            0/1       ContainerCreating   0          25s
    my-release-cockroachdb-init-nwjkh   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          6s
    ...
    
    Note:

    Ignore the pod for cluster initialization. It is re-created as a byproduct of the StatefulSet configuration but does not impact your existing cluster.

  4. This will continue until all of the pods have restarted and are running the new image. To check the image of each pod to determine whether they've all be upgraded, run:

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    $ kubectl get pods \
    -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{.metadata.name}{"\t"}{.spec.containers[0].image}{"\n"}'
    
    cockroachdb-0   cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    cockroachdb-1   cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    cockroachdb-2   cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    cockroachdb-3   cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    ...
    
    my-release-cockroachdb-0    cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    my-release-cockroachdb-1    cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    my-release-cockroachdb-2    cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    my-release-cockroachdb-3    cockroachdb/cockroach:v19.2.1
    ...
    

    You can also check the CockroachDB version of each node in the Admin UI:

    Version in UI after upgrade

  5. Finish the upgrade.

    Note:

    This step is relevant only when upgrading from v19.1.x to v19.2. For upgrades within the v19.2.x series, skip this step.

    If you disabled auto-finalization in step 1 above, monitor the stability and performance of your cluster for as long as you require to feel comfortable with the upgrade (generally at least a day). If during this time you decide to roll back the upgrade, repeat the rolling restart procedure with the old binary.

    Once you are satisfied with the new version, re-enable auto-finalization:

    1. Get a shell into the pod with the cockroach binary created earlier and start the CockroachDB built-in SQL client:

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      $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
      -- ./cockroach sql \
      --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
      --host=cockroachdb-public
      
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      $ kubectl exec -it cockroachdb-client-secure \
      -- ./cockroach sql \
      --certs-dir=/cockroach-certs \
      --host=my-release-cockroachdb-public
      
    2. Re-enable auto-finalization:

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      > RESET CLUSTER SETTING cluster.preserve_downgrade_option;
      
    3. Exit the SQL shell and delete the temporary pod:

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      > \q
      

Stop the cluster

To shut down the CockroachDB cluster:

  1. Delete all of the resources associated with the cockroachdb label, including the logs, remote persistent volumes, and Prometheus and Alertmanager resources:

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    $ kubectl delete pods,statefulsets,services,persistentvolumeclaims,persistentvolumes,poddisruptionbudget,jobs,rolebinding,clusterrolebinding,role,clusterrole,serviceaccount,alertmanager,prometheus,prometheusrule,serviceMonitor -l app=cockroachdb
    
    pod "cockroachdb-0" deleted
    pod "cockroachdb-1" deleted
    pod "cockroachdb-2" deleted
    statefulset.apps "alertmanager-cockroachdb" deleted
    statefulset.apps "prometheus-cockroachdb" deleted
    service "alertmanager-cockroachdb" deleted
    service "cockroachdb" deleted
    service "cockroachdb-public" deleted
    persistentvolumeclaim "datadir-cockroachdb-0" deleted
    persistentvolumeclaim "datadir-cockroachdb-1" deleted
    persistentvolumeclaim "datadir-cockroachdb-2" deleted
    persistentvolumeclaim "datadir-cockroachdb-3" deleted
    poddisruptionbudget.policy "cockroachdb-budget" deleted
    job.batch "cluster-init-secure" deleted
    rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "cockroachdb" deleted
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "cockroachdb" deleted
    clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "prometheus" deleted
    role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "cockroachdb" deleted
    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "cockroachdb" deleted
    clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io "prometheus" deleted
    serviceaccount "cockroachdb" deleted
    serviceaccount "prometheus" deleted
    alertmanager.monitoring.coreos.com "cockroachdb" deleted
    prometheus.monitoring.coreos.com "cockroachdb" deleted
    prometheusrule.monitoring.coreos.com "prometheus-cockroachdb-rules" deleted
    servicemonitor.monitoring.coreos.com "cockroachdb" deleted
    
  2. Delete the pod created for cockroach client commands, if you didn't do so earlier:

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    $ kubectl delete pod cockroachdb-client-secure
    
    pod "cockroachdb-client-secure" deleted
    
  3. Get the names of the CSRs for the cluster:

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    $ kubectl get csr
    
    NAME                                                   AGE       REQUESTOR                               CONDITION
    default.client.root                                    1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-0                             1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-1                             1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-2                             1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.cockroachdb-3                             12m       system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    node-csr-0Xmb4UTVAWMEnUeGbW4KX1oL4XV_LADpkwjrPtQjlZ4   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-NiN8oDsLhxn0uwLTWa0RWpMUgJYnwcFxB984mwjjYsY   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-aU78SxyU69pDK57aj6txnevr7X-8M3XgX9mTK0Hso6o   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    
    NAME                                                   AGE       REQUESTOR                               CONDITION
    default.client.root                                    1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0                  1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1                  1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2                  1h        system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3                  12m       system:serviceaccount:default:default   Approved,Issued
    node-csr-0Xmb4UTVAWMEnUeGbW4KX1oL4XV_LADpkwjrPtQjlZ4   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-NiN8oDsLhxn0uwLTWa0RWpMUgJYnwcFxB984mwjjYsY   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    node-csr-aU78SxyU69pDK57aj6txnevr7X-8M3XgX9mTK0Hso6o   1h        kubelet                                 Approved,Issued
    ...
    
  4. Delete the CSRs that you created:

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    $ kubectl delete csr default.client.root default.node.cockroachdb-0 default.node.cockroachdb-1 default.node.cockroachdb-2 default.node.cockroachdb-3
    
    certificatesigningrequest "default.client.root" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.cockroachdb-0" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.cockroachdb-1" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.cockroachdb-2" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.cockroachdb-3" deleted
    
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    $ kubectl delete csr default.client.root default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0 default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1 default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2 default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3
    
    certificatesigningrequest "default.client.root" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2" deleted
    certificatesigningrequest "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3" deleted
    
  5. Get the names of the secrets for the cluster:

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    $ kubectl get secrets
    
    NAME                              TYPE                                  DATA      AGE
    alertmanager-cockroachdb          Opaque                                1         1h
    default-token-d9gff               kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         5h
    default.client.root               Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.cockroachdb-0        Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.cockroachdb-1        Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.cockroachdb-2        Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.cockroachdb-3        Opaque                                2         5h
    prometheus-operator-token-bpdv8   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         3h    
    
    NAME                                     TYPE                                  DATA      AGE
    alertmanager-cockroachdb                 Opaque                                1         1h
    default-token-d9gff                      kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         5h
    default.client.root                      Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0    Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1    Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2    Opaque                                2         5h
    default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3    Opaque                                2         5h
    prometheus-operator-token-bpdv8          kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         3h
    
  6. Delete the secrets that you created:

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    $ kubectl delete secrets alertmanager-cockroachdb default.client.root default.node.cockroachdb-0 default.node.cockroachdb-1 default.node.cockroachdb-2 default.node.cockroachdb-3
    
    secret "alertmanager-cockroachdb" deleted
    secret "default.client.root" deleted
    secret "default.node.cockroachdb-0" deleted
    secret "default.node.cockroachdb-1" deleted
    secret "default.node.cockroachdb-2" deleted
    secret "default.node.cockroachdb-3" deleted
    
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    $ kubectl delete secrets alertmanager-cockroachdb default.client.root default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0 default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1 default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2 default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3
    
    secret "alertmanager-cockroachdb" deleted
    secret "default.client.root" deleted
    secret "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-0" deleted
    secret "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-1" deleted
    secret "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-2" deleted
    secret "default.node.my-release-cockroachdb-3" deleted
    
  7. Stop Kubernetes:

    • Hosted GKE:

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      $ gcloud container clusters delete cockroachdb
      
    • Hosted EKS:

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      $ eksctl delete cluster --name cockroachdb
      
    • Manual GCE:

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      $ cluster/kube-down.sh
      
    • Manual AWS:

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      $ cluster/kube-down.sh
      
    Warning:

    If you stop Kubernetes without first deleting the persistent volumes, they will still exist in your cloud project.

See also



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