The INSERT statement inserts one or more rows into a table. In cases where inserted values conflict with uniqueness constraints, the ON CONFLICT clause can be used to update rather than insert rows.

Required Privileges

The user must have the INSERT privilege on the table. To use ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE, the user must also have the UPDATE privilege on the table.

Synopsis

INSERT INTO qualified_name AS name ( qualified_name_list ) select_stmt DEFAULT VALUES RETURNING target_list NOTHING on_conflict

Parameters

Parameter Description
qualified_name The name of the table to insert into.
AS name An alias for the table name. When an alias is provided, it completely hides the actual table name.
qualified_name_list A comma-separated list of column names, in parentheses.
select_stmt A comma-separated list of column values for a single row, in parentheses. To insert values into multiple rows, use a comma-separated list of parentheses. Alternately, you can use SELECT statements to retrieve values from other tables and insert them as new rows. See the Insert a Single Row, Insert Multiple Rows, Insert from a SELECT Statement examples below.

Each value must match the data type of its column. Also, if column names are listed (qualified_name_list), values must be in corresponding order; otherwise, they must follow the declared order of the columns in the table.
DEFAULT VALUES To fill all columns with their default values, use DEFAULT VALUES in place of select_stmt. To fill a specific column with its default value, leave the value out of the select_stmt or use DEFAULT at the appropriate position. See the Insert Default Values examples below.
RETURNING target_list Return values based on rows inserted, where target_list can be specific column names from the table, * for all columns, or a computation on specific columns. See the Insert and Return Values example below.

To return nothing in the response, not even the number of rows affected, use RETURNING NOTHING.

Note that RETURNING is not supported for INSERT statements with ON CONFLICT clauses.
on_conflict Normally, when inserted values conflict with a Unique constraint on one or more columns, CockroachDB returns an error. To update the affected rows instead, use an ON CONFLICT clause containing the column(s) with the unique constraint and the DO UPDATE SET expression set to the column(s) to be updated (any SET expression supported by the UPDATE statement is also supported here). To prevent the affected rows from updating while allowing new rows to be inserted, set ON CONFLICT to DO NOTHING. See the Update Values ON CONFLICT and Do Not Update Values ON CONFLICT examples below.

Note that it’s not possible to update the same row twice with a single INSERT ON CONFLICT statement. Also, if the values in the SET expression cause uniqueness conflicts, CockroachDB will return an error.

As a short-hand alternative to the ON CONFLICT clause, you can use the UPSERT statement. However, UPSERT does not let you specify the column with the unique constraint; it assumes that the column is the primary key. Using ON CONFLICT is therefore more flexible.

Examples

Insert a Single Row

> INSERT INTO accounts (balance, id) VALUES (10000.50, 1);

> SELECT * FROM accounts;
+----+---------+
| id | balance |
+----+---------+
|  1 | 10000.5 |
+----+---------+

If you don’t list column names, the statement will use the columns of the table in their declared order:

> SHOW COLUMNS FROM accounts;
+---------+---------+-------+----------------+
|  Field  |  Type   | Null  |    Default     |
+---------+---------+-------+----------------+
| id      | INT     | false | unique_rowid() |
| balance | DECIMAL | true  | NULL           |
+---------+---------+-------+----------------+
> INSERT INTO accounts VALUES (2, 20000.75);

> SELECT * FROM accounts;
+----+----------+
| id | balance  |
+----+----------+
|  1 |  10000.5 |
|  2 | 20000.75 |
+----+----------+

Insert Multiple Rows

> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) VALUES (3, 8100.73), (4, 9400.10);

> SELECT * FROM accounts;
+----+----------+
| id | balance  |
+----+----------+
|  1 |  10000.5 |
|  2 | 20000.75 |
|  3 |  8100.73 |
|  4 |   9400.1 |
+----+----------+

Insert from a SELECT Statement

> SHOW COLUMS FROM other_accounts;
+--------+---------+-------+---------+
| Field  |  Type   | Null  | Default |
+--------+---------+-------+---------+
| number | INT     | false | NULL    |
| amount | DECIMAL | true  | NULL    |
+--------+---------+-------+---------+
> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) SELECT number, amount FROM other_accounts WHERE id > 4;

> SELECT * FROM accounts;
+----+----------+
| id | balance  |
+----+----------+
|  1 |  10000.5 |
|  2 | 20000.75 |
|  3 |  8100.73 |
|  4 |   9400.1 |
|  5 |    350.1 |
|  6 |      150 |
|  7 |    200.1 |
+----+----------+

Insert Default Values

> INSERT INTO accounts (id) VALUES (8);
> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) VALUES (9, DEFAULT);

> SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE id in (8, 9);
+----+---------+
| id | balance |
+----+---------+
|  8 | NULL    |
|  9 | NULL    |
+----+---------+
> INSERT INTO accounts DEFAULT VALUES;

> SELECT * FROM accounts;
+--------------------+----------+
|         id         | balance  |
+--------------------+----------+
|                  1 |  10000.5 |
|                  2 | 20000.75 |
|                  3 |  8100.73 |
|                  4 |   9400.1 |
|                  5 |    350.1 |
|                  6 |      150 |
|                  7 |    200.1 |
|                  8 | NULL     |
|                  9 | NULL     |
| 142933248649822209 | NULL     |
+--------------------+----------+

Insert and Return Values

In this example, the RETURNING clause returns the id values of the rows inserted, which are generated server-side by the unique_rowid() function. The language-specific versions assume that you have installed the relevant client drivers.

This use of RETURNING mirrors the behavior of MySQL's last_insert_id() function.
When a driver provides a query() method for statements that return results and an exec() method for statements that don't (e.g., Go), it's likely necessary to use the query() method for INSERT statements with RETURNING.

> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance)
  VALUES (DEFAULT, 1000), (DEFAULT, 250)
  RETURNING id;
+--------------------+
|         id         |
+--------------------+
| 190018410823680001 |
| 190018410823712769 |
+--------------------+
(2 rows)

# Import the driver.
import psycopg2

# Connect to the "bank" database.
conn = psycopg2.connect(
    database='bank',
    user='root',
    host='localhost',
    port=26257
)

# Make each statement commit immediately.
conn.set_session(autocommit=True)

# Open a cursor to perform database operations.
cur = conn.cursor()

# Insert two rows into the "accounts" table
# and return the "id" values generated server-side.
cur.execute(
    'INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) '
    'VALUES (DEFAULT, 1000), (DEFAULT, 250) '
    'RETURNING id'
)

# Print out the returned values.
rows = cur.fetchall()
print('IDs:')
for row in rows:
    print([str(cell) for cell in row])

# Close the database connection.
cur.close()
conn.close()

The printed values would look like:

IDs:
['190019066706952193']
['190019066706984961']

# Import the driver.
require 'pg'

# Connect to the "bank" database.
conn = PG.connect(
    user: 'root',
    dbname: 'bank',
    host: 'localhost',
    port: 26257
)

# Insert two rows into the "accounts" table
# and return the "id" values generated server-side.
conn.exec(
    'INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) '\
    'VALUES (DEFAULT, 1000), (DEFAULT, 250) '\
    'RETURNING id'
) do |res|

# Print out the returned values.
puts "IDs:"
    res.each do |row|
        puts row
    end
end

# Close communication with the database.
conn.close()

The printed values would look like:

IDs:
{"id"=>"190019066706952193"}
{"id"=>"190019066706984961"}

package main

import (
        "database/sql"
        "fmt"
        "log"

        _ "github.com/lib/pq"
)

func main() {
        //Connect to the "bank" database.
        db, err := sql.Open(
                "postgres",
                "postgresql:[email protected]:26257/bank?sslmode=disable"
        )
        if err != nil {
                log.Fatalf("error connection to the database: %s", err)
        }

        // Insert two rows into the "accounts" table
        // and return the "id" values generated server-side.
        rows, err := db.Query(
                "INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) " +
                "VALUES (DEFAULT, 1000), (DEFAULT, 250) " +
                "RETURNING id",
        )
        if err != nil {
                log.Fatal(err)
        }

        // Print out the returned values.
        defer rows.Close()
        fmt.Println("IDs:")
        for rows.Next() {
                var id int
                if err := rows.Scan(&id); err != nil {
                        log.Fatal(err)
                }
                fmt.Printf("%d\n", id)
        }
}

The printed values would look like:

IDs:
190019066706952193
190019066706984961

var async = require('async');

// Require the driver.
var pg = require('pg');

// Connect to the "bank" database.
var config = {
  user: 'root',
  host: 'localhost',
  database: 'bank',
  port: 26257
};

pg.connect(config, function (err, client, done) {
  // Closes communication with the database and exits.
  var finish = function () {
    done();
    process.exit();
  };

  if (err) {
    console.error('could not connect to cockroachdb', err);
    finish();
  }
  async.waterfall([
    function (next) {
      // Insert two rows into the "accounts" table
      // and return the "id" values generated server-side.
      client.query(
        `INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance)
         VALUES (DEFAULT, 1000), (DEFAULT, 250)
         RETURNING id;`,
        next
      );
    }
  ],
  function (err, results) {
    if (err) {
      console.error('error inserting into and selecting from accounts', err);
      finish();
    }
    // Print out the returned values.
    console.log('IDs:');
    results.rows.forEach(function (row) {
      console.log(row);
    });

    finish();
  });
});

The printed values would like like:

IDs:
{ id: '190019066706952193' }
{ id: '190019066706984961' }

Update Values ON CONFLICT

When a uniqueness conflict is detected, CockroachDB stores the row in a temporary table called excluded. This example demonstrates how you use the columns in the temporary excluded table to apply updates on conflict:

> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance)
    VALUES (8, 500.50)
    ON CONFLICT (id)
    DO UPDATE SET balance = excluded.balance;

> SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE id = 8;
+----+---------+
| id | balance |
+----+---------+
|  8 |   500.5 |
+----+---------+

Do Not Update Values ON CONFLICT

In this example, we get an error from a uniqueness conflict:

> SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE id = 8;
+----+---------+
| id | balance |
+----+---------+
|  8 |   500.5 |
+----+---------+
> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance) VALUES (8, 125.50);
pq: duplicate key value (id)=(8) violates unique constraint "primary"

In this example, we use ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING to ignore the uniqueness error and prevent the affected row from being updated:

> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance)
    VALUES (8, 125.50)
    ON CONFLICT (id)
    DO NOTHING;

> SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE id = 8;
+----+---------+
| id | balance |
+----+---------+
|  8 |   500.5 |
+----+---------+

In this example, ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING prevents the first row from updating while allowing the second row to be inserted:

> INSERT INTO accounts (id, balance)
    VALUES (8, 125.50), (10, 450)
    ON CONFLICT (id)
    DO NOTHING;

> SELECT * FROM accounts WHERE id in (8, 10);
+----+---------+
| id | balance |
+----+---------+
|  8 |   500.5 |
| 10 |     450 |
+----+---------+

See Also



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