The feature described here is a simple form of backup and restore that writes to and reads from a local flat file. A production-suitable solution that uses cloud storage and efficiently manages the time and load on the nodes of the cluster is under development for our 1.0 release. For more details about the upcoming solution, see the original RFC.

The cockroach dump command outputs the SQL statements required to recreate one or more tables and all their rows. This command can be used to back up each database in a cluster. The output should also be suitable for importing into other relational databases, with minimal adjustments.

When cockroach dump is executed:

  • Table schema and data are dumped as they appear at the time that the command is started, or at the time specified in the --as-of flag. Any changes after the command starts, or after the timestamp specified in --as-of, will not be included in the dump.
  • If the dump takes longer than the ttlseconds replication setting for the table (24 hours by default), the dump may fail.
  • Reads, writes, and schema changes can happen while the dump is in progress.
The user must have the SELECT privilege on the target table(s).

Synopsis

# Dump the schema and data of specific tables to stdout:
$ cockroach dump <database> <table> <table...> <flags>

# Dump just the data of specific tables to stdout:
$ cockroach dump <database> <table> <table...> --dump-mode=data <other flags>

# Dump just the schema of specific tables to stdout:
$ cockroach dump <database> <table> <table...> --dump-mode=schema <other flags>

# Dump the schema and data of all tables in a database to stdout:
$ cockroach dump <database> <flags>

# Dump just the schema of all tables in a database to stdout:
$ cockroach dump <database> --dump-mode=schema <other flags>

# Dump just the data of all tables in a database to stdout:
$ cockroach dump <database> --dump-mode=data <other flags>

# Dump to a file:
$ cockroach dump <database> <table> <flags> > dump-file.sql

# View help:
$ cockroach dump --help

Flags

The cockroach dump command supports the following flags as well as logging flags.

Flag Description
--as-of Dump table schema and/or data as they appear at the specified timestamp. See this example for a demonstraion.

Note that historical data is available only within the garbage collection window, which is determined by the ttlseconds replication setting for the table (24 hours by default). If this timestamp is earlier than that window, the dump will fail.

Default: Current time
--certs-dir The path to the certificate directory. The directory must contain valid certificates if running in secure mode.

Env Variable: COCKROACH_CERTS_DIR
Default: ${HOME}/.cockroach-certs/
--database
-d
Not valid for the dump command. This flag will eventually be removed.
--dump-mode Whether to dump table schema, table data, or both.

To dump just table schema, set this to schema. To dump just table data, set this to data. To dump both table schema and data, leave this flag out or set it to both.

Default: both
--host The server host to connect to. This can be the address of any node in the cluster.

Env Variable: COCKROACH_HOST
--insecure Run in insecure mode. If this flag is not set, the --certs-dir flag must point to valid certificates.

Env Variable: COCKROACH_INSECURE
Default: false
--port
-p
The server port to connect to.

Env Variable: COCKROACH_PORT
Default: 26257
--url The connection URL. If you use this flag, do not set any other connection flags.

For insecure connections, the URL format is:
--url=postgresql://<user>@<host>:<port>/<database>?sslmode=disable

For secure connections, the URL format is:
--url=postgresql://<user>@<host>:<port>/<database>
with the following parameters in the query string:
sslcert=<path-to-client-crt>
sslkey=<path-to-client-key>
sslmode=verify-full
sslrootcert=<path-to-ca-crt>

Env Variable: COCKROACH_URL
--user
-u
The user executing the dump command. The user must have the SELECT privilege on the target table.

Default: root

Examples

All but the last example use our sample startrek database and assume that the maxroach user has been granted the SELECT privilege on all target tables. You can add the sample startrek database to a cluster via the cockroach gen command.

Dump a table’s schema and data

$ cockroach dump startrek episodes --insecure --user=maxroach > backup.sql
$ cat backup.sql
CREATE TABLE episodes (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    season INT NULL,
    num INT NULL,
    title STRING NULL,
    stardate DECIMAL NULL,
    CONSTRAINT "primary" PRIMARY KEY (id),
    FAMILY "primary" (id, season, num),
    FAMILY fam_1_title (title),
    FAMILY fam_2_stardate (stardate)
);

INSERT INTO episodes (id, season, num, title, stardate) VALUES
    (1, 1, 1, 'The Man Trap', 1531.1),
    (2, 1, 2, 'Charlie X', 1533.6),
    (3, 1, 3, 'Where No Man Has Gone Before', 1312.4),
    (4, 1, 4, 'The Naked Time', 1704.2),
    (5, 1, 5, 'The Enemy Within', 1672.1),
    (6, 1, 6, e'Mudd\'s Women', 1329.8),
    (7, 1, 7, 'What Are Little Girls Made Of?', 2712.4),
    (8, 1, 8, 'Miri', 2713.5),
    (9, 1, 9, 'Dagger of the Mind', 2715.1),
    (10, 1, 10, 'The Corbomite Maneuver', 1512.2),
    ...

Dump just a table’s schema

$ cockroach dump startrek episodes --insecure --user=maxroach --dump-mode=schema > backup.sql
$ cat backup.sql
CREATE TABLE episodes (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    season INT NULL,
    num INT NULL,
    title STRING NULL,
    stardate DECIMAL NULL,
    CONSTRAINT "primary" PRIMARY KEY (id),
    FAMILY "primary" (id, season, num),
    FAMILY fam_1_title (title),
    FAMILY fam_2_stardate (stardate)
);

Dump just a table’s data

$ cockroach dump startrek episodes --insecure --user=maxroach --dump-mode=data > backup.sql
$ cat backup.sql
INSERT INTO episodes (id, season, num, title, stardate) VALUES
    (1, 1, 1, 'The Man Trap', 1531.1),
    (2, 1, 2, 'Charlie X', 1533.6),
    (3, 1, 3, 'Where No Man Has Gone Before', 1312.4),
    (4, 1, 4, 'The Naked Time', 1704.2),
    (5, 1, 5, 'The Enemy Within', 1672.1),
    (6, 1, 6, e'Mudd\'s Women', 1329.8),
    (7, 1, 7, 'What Are Little Girls Made Of?', 2712.4),
    (8, 1, 8, 'Miri', 2713.5),
    (9, 1, 9, 'Dagger of the Mind', 2715.1),
    (10, 1, 10, 'The Corbomite Maneuver', 1512.2),
    ...

Dump all tables in a database

$ cockroach dump startrek --insecure --user=maxroach > backup.sql
$ cat backup.sql
CREATE TABLE episodes (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    season INT NULL,
    num INT NULL,
    title STRING NULL,
    stardate DECIMAL NULL,
    CONSTRAINT "primary" PRIMARY KEY (id),
    FAMILY "primary" (id, season, num),
    FAMILY fam_1_title (title),
    FAMILY fam_2_stardate (stardate)
);

CREATE TABLE quotes (
    quote STRING NULL,
    characters STRING NULL,
    stardate DECIMAL NULL,
    episode INT NULL,
    INDEX quotes_episode_idx (episode),
    FAMILY "primary" (quote, rowid),
    FAMILY fam_1_characters (characters),
    FAMILY fam_2_stardate (stardate),
    FAMILY fam_3_episode (episode)
);

INSERT INTO episodes (id, season, num, title, stardate) VALUES
    (1, 1, 1, 'The Man Trap', 1531.1),
    (2, 1, 2, 'Charlie X', 1533.6),
    (3, 1, 3, 'Where No Man Has Gone Before', 1312.4),
    (4, 1, 4, 'The Naked Time', 1704.2),
    (5, 1, 5, 'The Enemy Within', 1672.1),
    (6, 1, 6, e'Mudd\'s Women', 1329.8),
    (7, 1, 7, 'What Are Little Girls Made Of?', 2712.4),
    (8, 1, 8, 'Miri', 2713.5),
    (9, 1, 9, 'Dagger of the Mind', 2715.1),
    (10, 1, 10, 'The Corbomite Maneuver', 1512.2),
    ...

INSERT INTO quotes (quote, characters, stardate, episode) VALUES
    ('"... freedom ... is a worship word..." "It is our worship word too."', 'Cloud William and Kirk', NULL, 52),
    ('"Beauty is transitory." "Beauty survives."', 'Spock and Kirk', NULL, 72),
    ('"Can you imagine how life could be improved if we could do away with jealousy, greed, hate ..." "It can also be improved by eliminating love, tenderness, sentiment -- the other side of the coin"', 'Dr. Roger Corby and Kirk', 2712.4, 7),
    ...

Dump fails (user does not have SELECT privilege)

In this example, the dump command fails for a user that does not have the SELECT privilege on the episodes table.

$ cockroach dump startrek episodes --insecure --user=leslieroach > backup.sql
Error: pq: user leslieroach has no privileges on table episodes
Failed running "dump"

Restore a table from a backup file

In this example, a user that has the CREATE privilege on the startrek database uses the cockroach sql command to recreate a table, based on a file created by the dump command.

$ cat backup.sql
CREATE TABLE quotes (
    quote STRING NULL,
    characters STRING NULL,
    stardate DECIMAL NULL,
    episode INT NULL,
    INDEX quotes_episode_idx (episode),
    FAMILY "primary" (quote, rowid),
    FAMILY fam_1_characters (characters),
    FAMILY fam_2_stardate (stardate),
    FAMILY fam_3_episode (episode)
);

INSERT INTO quotes (quote, characters, stardate, episode) VALUES
    ('"... freedom ... is a worship word..." "It is our worship word too."', 'Cloud William and Kirk', NULL, 52),
    ('"Beauty is transitory." "Beauty survives."', 'Spock and Kirk', NULL, 72),
    ('"Can you imagine how life could be improved if we could do away with jealousy, greed, hate ..." "It can also be improved by eliminating love, tenderness, sentiment -- the other side of the coin"', 'Dr. Roger Corby and Kirk', 2712.4, 7),
    ...
$ cockroach sql --insecure --database=startrek --user=maxroach < backup.sql
CREATE TABLE
INSERT 100
INSERT 100

Dump table data as of a specific time

In this example, we assume there were several inserts into a table both before and after 2017-03-07 19:55:00.

First, let’s use the built-in SQL client to view the table at the current time:

$ cockroach sql --insecure --execute="SELECT * FROM db1.dump_test"
+--------------------+------+
|         id         | name |
+--------------------+------+
| 225594758537183233 | a    |
| 225594758537248769 | b    |
| 225594758537281537 | c    |
| 225594758537314305 | d    |
| 225594758537347073 | e    |
| 225594758537379841 | f    |
| 225594758537412609 | g    |
| 225594758537445377 | h    |
| 225594991654174721 | i    |
| 225594991654240257 | j    |
| 225594991654273025 | k    |
| 225594991654305793 | l    |
| 225594991654338561 | m    |
| 225594991654371329 | n    |
| 225594991654404097 | o    |
| 225594991654436865 | p    |
+--------------------+------+
(16 rows)

Next, let’s use a time-travel query to view the contents of the table as of 2017-03-07 19:55:00:

$ cockroach sql --insecure --execute="SELECT * FROM db1.dump_test AS OF SYSTEM TIME '2017-03-07 19:55:00'"
+--------------------+------+
|         id         | name |
+--------------------+------+
| 225594758537183233 | a    |
| 225594758537248769 | b    |
| 225594758537281537 | c    |
| 225594758537314305 | d    |
| 225594758537347073 | e    |
| 225594758537379841 | f    |
| 225594758537412609 | g    |
| 225594758537445377 | h    |
+--------------------+------+
(8 rows)

Finally, let’s use cockroach dump with the --as-of flag set to dump the contents of the table as of 2017-03-07 19:55:00.

$ cockroach dump db1 dump_test --insecure --dump-mode=data --as-of='2017-03-07 19:55:00'
INSERT INTO dump_test (id, name) VALUES
    (225594758537183233, 'a'),
    (225594758537248769, 'b'),
    (225594758537281537, 'c'),
    (225594758537314305, 'd'),
    (225594758537347073, 'e'),
    (225594758537379841, 'f'),
    (225594758537412609, 'g'),
    (225594758537445377, 'h');

As you can see, the results of the dump are identical to the earlier time-travel query.

See Also



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